Mapmakers of the Historic
Lithuanian Area:
A - F
Berlinghieri, Francesco di Nicolo: 1440 - 1501. Italy
Berlinghieri was born in Florence into a family with over 200 years of involvement in Florentine politics, and found work in Florence
in the court of Lorenzo de' Medici.  In 1464 he began work on a treatise based upon Ptolemy's "Geographica," updating its maps and
including a commentary in verse form. It was printed in 1482 with copper-engraved maps by the German printer Nicolaus  
Laurentii, also known as Niccolò Tedesco, under the title "Septe Giornate della Geographia di Francesco Berlinghieri," meaning "The
Seven Days of Geography." It was one of the first printed works based on Ptolemy and also the first to be printed in vernacular
Italian. Berlinghieri was also among the first to supplement the traditional maps contained in the Geographia with updated  maps of
France, Italy, Spain and the Holy Land.
Rigobert Bonne
Bonne, Rigobert: 1727 - 1795. Born, Raucort, France; died Paris
Engineer, mathematician and cartographer, he succeeded Jacques-Nicholas Bellin as French hydrographer
(maker of sea charts) in 1773.  Working in his official capacity, Bonne compiled  some of the most detailed and
accurate maps of the period. Bonne’s work represents an i mportant step in the evolution of the cartographic
ideology away from the decorative work of the 17th and early 18th century towards a more detail-oriented and
practical aesthetic. With regard to the rendering of terrain, Bonne maps bear many stylistic similarities to those
of his predecessor, Bellin. However, Bonne maps generally abandon such common 18th century decorative
features such as hand coloring, elaborate decorative cartouches, and compass roses.  He created maps for Jean
Lattre's 1762 "Atlas moderne...," Grenet's 1779-'82, '85 "Atlas portatif," and, along with his son,  Nicolas
Desmarest's 1787-'88 "Atlas encyclopedique..."
Bowen, Emanuel: c1693-'94 - 1767; son Thomas: c1732-'33 - 1790. London
Emanuel, one of the leading 18th-century map- and printsellers in London, was Engraver of Maps to George II of England and
possibly also to Louis XV of France. His apprentices included
Thomas Kitchin (who became his son-in-law) and Thomas Jefferys.
He collabrated with other leading mapmakers, including the
Bowles family and John Owen. He creations included "A Complete
System of Geography" in 1744-'47, with 70 maps, which were also used in 1747 and 1752 editions of "A Complete Atlas," maps
during 1747-'66 for "The Universal Magazine of Knowledge and Pleasure" for John Hinton. In 1758 he created 52 pocket maps for
"Atlas Minimus." His son
Thomas began engraving maps for his father in 1749, and later drew maps for the "Gentleman's
Magazine" from 1773-'79. At the same time, Thomas created the maps for Middleton's "A New and Complete System of Geography"
from 1777-'79.
Clüver (Cluverius, Cluvier, Kluver), Philipp (Philippus): 1580 - 1623. Danzig
Clüver was a geographer and the founder of historical geography. Many of the maps in his six-part "Introductio in
universam geographiam..," were etched by
Petrus Bertius. Dating his map "Veteris et Novæ Regni Poloniæ
Magniq Ducatus Lithuaniæ..,"
is difficult, given not just the three states of the plate, with changes in the
cartouche, mileage chart, and labeling -- Latin or English -- but because of the more than two editions noted by
"Imago Poloniae": 1697, by by Johan Wolters, and 1729, by Petrus de Coup. There were
17 editions between
1624 and 1729
. Here are just some of title pages:
Coronelli, Father Vincenzo: 1650 - 1718. Venice
Vincenzo Coronelli, fifth child of a Venetian tailor, was, at ten, sent to Ravenna and apprenticed to a
xylographer – a maker of woodblock prints. In 1663 he was accepted into the Conventual Franciscans,
becoming a novice in 1665. At sixteen he published the first of his 140 works. He excelled in the study of
both astronomy and Euclid. A little before 1678, Coronelli began working as a geographer and was
commissioned to make a set of terrestrial  and celestial globes for the Duke of Parma. Each globe was five
feet in diameter and so impressed the Duke that he made Coronelli his theologian. In 1699 he was appointed
Father General of the Franciscan order. Due to his renown he worked in various European countries  in the
following years, permanently returning to Venice in 1705, where he started his own cosmographical project
and published the volumes of “Atlante Veneto.” He founded the very first geographical society: Accademia
Cosmografica degli Argonauti, and created hundreds of maps.
Delamarche, Charles Francois (Father): 1740 - 1817, Felix (Son), Paris
Charles was a geographer, publisher, and globe-maker who bought the stock of Didier Robert
de Vaugondy
from Jean Fortin, as well as the stock of Lattre, which included work by
Bonne, Desnos and Janvier. In 1784 he updated and re-published Vaugondy's "Nouvel
Atlas" and "Nouvel Atlas Portatif, and in 1790, 1793 and 1800, the "Petit Atlas Moderne."
Among other atlases and maps he published "Atlas elementaire" in 1800 and later editions. His
Felix published the "Atlas de geographie ancienne et moderne" in 1823 and later editions.
Fer, Nicolas de:   1646 - 1720. Paris
The "Geographer of Paris," he was the son of Antoine (d.1673) and Genevieve (d.1690) de Fer.
Antoine was a Parisian print and mapseller, and a close associate of
Nicolas Berey, Melchior
and Jacques Lagnet during the middle years of the Century. Antoine never  
achieved first rank status, his main speciality being the republication of plates that he purchased
from other Parisian mapsellers and editors. Nicolas took over the family business after the death   
of his mother, and built it into a flourishing map publisher. His publications included "Atlas  
Royal..." in editions of 1695, '97 and '99, for which he used maps of
Sanson, Jaillot and others;
Robbe's “Methode pour apprendre facilement la Geographie, contenant un abrégé de la sphère, et
un traité de la navigation," for which de Fer is credited with the maps, first edition 1689, editions at
least through the seventh in 1721; "Petit et Nouveau Atlas," (19 maps) in 1697, 1705 and 1723;  
and "Introduction a la Geographie,"   in 1717.  His sign and emblem was the Sphère Royale,
originally that of Tavernier, to which he was greatly attached and which appears on a large number
of his works. His estate was divided between his three daughters, all of whose husbands were
closely involved in the Parisian   engraving and publishing business: Guillaume Danet, bookseller;
Remi Richer,  engraver, and Jaques-Francois Besnard or Bénard, engraver to the King of Spain. de
Fer's maps and atlases continued to be published by his heirs for another 20-30 years.
Title page, Jacques-Francois
Bénard's 1723 reissue of
Nicolas de Fer's “Forces de
Blaeu (Blaeuw), Willem (Guilielmus, Guilhelmus) Jansz
(Alcmarianus, Janssonius, Janszoon): 1571 - 1638, born in Uitgeest,
flourished in Amsterdam; son
Joan I (Johannes, Jan): c1599-1673, born and
died in Amsterdam
The Blaeu family was, for 40 years -- until a 1672 fire destroyed all their equipment, plates and stock
-- one of the most famous 16th-century publishers of maps, globes and atlases, as well as carto-
graphers, globe makers and booksellers. Willem (Janssonius) Janszoon originally studied under the
astronomer Tycho Brahe, and founded a globe- and equipment-making company 1n 1596. In 1621 he
changed his name to Blaeu to differentiate himself, his firm
and his family from that of Johannes
. In 1629 he bought 36 plates from Hondius and issued his first land atlas   in 1630
(eight copies are known) as "Atlantis Appendix," which had 60 maps without text. Another of his  
many publications was "Theatrum Orbis Terrarum," or "Novus Atlas," in 1634 and later editions. On
the death of his former apprentice,
Hessel Gerritsz, in 1633, he became chartmaker for the Dutch
East india Company. At his own death in 1638, the business passed to his sons Joan (I) and Cornelius.
Joan I collaborated with his father and brother, and ran the business after his father died -- at which
point he succeeded him as chartmaker to the Dutch East India Company. Joan I expanded his father's
atlas "Theatrum Orbis Terrarum," publishing six volumes up to 1655. He published "Atlas Major,"
known as the Grand Atlas, from 1662-'72 in 11 volumes -- often described as the most magnificent
work of its kind ever produced. It was also said to be the most expensive printed book of the 17th
[100 of the maps are reproduced in a 1991 replica atlas published by Rizzoli, a book I am
proud to have received as a present from my wife, Aileen. AK]
What was left of the company after
the 1672 fire and the death of Joan in 1673 passed to his son, Joan II. The firm's surviving stock of
plates and maps were gradually dispersed, with some of the surviving plates being sold to
de Wit
, Pierre Mortier, and Schenk and Valck. Many of these maps were included in composite
atlases, even as late as 1730. The demise of the House of Blaeu brought an end to the Dutch
domination of cartography.
Bussemacher (Bussmacherus, Buxemacher), Johannes (Janus): Flourished 1580 - 1613: Köln
Cartographer, engraver, printer. publisher and art dealer. Created maps for Matthias Quad's "Europae..." of 1594 and 1596, which
was expanded in 1600 to "Geographisch Handtbuch."
Braun & Hogenberg (Georg [Joris] Braun [Bruin] and Frans [Franciscus] Hogenberg
[Hoogenberg, Hoghenberghe])
: Köln
Braun (1541 - 1622), topographer, geographer and publisher, is best known for "Civitates orbis terrrarum," six volumes, published
1572 - 1617, on which he worked with engraver Frans Hogenberg. It was published in many editions in Latin, French and German at
Cologne. It was the first atlas of town plans and views of the known world, and was often found in conjunction with Ortelius'  
Hogenberg (1538 - 90) was a Flemish artist, copper engraver and publisher who started in Mechelen, and later worked in London
(1568 - 69), and Cologne, where he died. He engraved maps for Ortelius' "Theatrum orbis terrarum," and was a joint publisher with
Braun for the first four (of six) volumes of "Civitates orbis terrrarum," 1572 - 1588. This great city atlas eventually contained 546
prospects, bird-eye views and map views of cities from all over the world. Braun added to the maps figures in local dress.
Duval (Du Vall, Du Val d'Abbeville), Pierre (Petrus): 1618 - 1683, Abbeville, France
The nephew and pupil of Nicolas Sanson, Duval was "Geographer to the King." He published a large number of
maps, map games and town plans, each appearing in many different states and in many different publications,
the most important of which were: "Cartes de Geographie" (1667, 1684), "Le Monde ou la Geographie Universelle"
(1661, 1672), "Geographie Universelle" (1682, 1691, 1694), and "Le Monde Chrestien" (1670?).     His maps
appeared in atlases by Janssonius and Blaeu.
Bertius (Bert, Berts), Petrus (Pierre, Pieter): 1565 - 1629, born Flanders, died Paris
Flemish mathematician, librarian, historian, geographer, and cosmographer to Louis XIII. Bertius was brother-
in-law to both Jocodus Hondius and Pieter van den Keere, and collaborated with both. He wrote a geographical
treatise in Latin published as the pocket atlas "Tabularum geographicarum contractarum...," Amsterdam,
published 1600 in Latin, French and German editions to 1650 with miniature maps engraved by J. Hondius and
van den Keere. He also published an edition of Ptolemy's "Geographia," as "Theatrum geographiae veteris" in  
1618 and thereafter, with 28 maps by Mercator and 14 by Ortelius.
Delisle (De l'Isle) Family: Claude (1644-1720); Guillaume (1675 - 1726); Marie
(d. 1745); Joseph Nicolas (1688-1768); Paris
Claude, the father, was a pupil of Nicolas Sanson, and a geographer, historian and mapmaker for Pierre Le
Moyne d'Iberville's 1684 historical atlas. His son Guillaume published his first maps in 1700: "Carte du  
monde" and et la "Carte des Continents, and ultimately created over 100 maps,  having earned mapmaking
from his father and from astronomer/mapmaker Jean Dominique Cassini. He became  a
Member, French
Academie Royale des Sciences
in 1702, at 27, and Premier geographe du roi in 1718. His atlases
included: "Atlas de Geographie" 1700-12 and many later; "Atlas Nouveau" 1730 and later editions; "Atlante
Novissimo" 1740-50 in Italian. He was succeeded by his widow Marie Angelique (daughter of Pierre Duval),
who continued to sell  her husband's maps. After her death in 1745, most of the maps passed to  her son-in-
law: Philippe Buache. Delisle's insistence on exactitude and intellectual honesty entangled him in a legal  
dispute in 1700 with Jean-Baptiste Nolin, a fellow cartographer. Noticing Nolin had used details that were
considered original from his Map of the World, Delisle dragged Nolin in court to prove his plagiarism. In the
end, Delisle convinced the jury of scientists that Nolin only knew old methods of cartography and that he had
stolen the information  from his manuscript. Nolin's maps were confiscated and he was forced to pay the court
costs. The accuracy of the work produced by the  Delisle  family contrasted with the workshop of Sanson.  
Sanson knowingly published outdated facts and mistakes, but Delisle strived to present up-to-date   
knowledge. Delisle is famous for his corrections based on astronomy, the completeness of its topography and
the care he gave to  the spelling of place names. Joseph Nicolas, younger brother of Guillaume, also studied
with Cassini,   and later founded the Academy of Sciences  in St. Petersburg. He worked with Kirilov on the  
first atlas of Russia: "Atlas Russicus." Jan Barend Elwe reissued maps by Delisle in the late 18th century.
1802 Jean Henri
Cless: "Guillaume
de l`Isle
Joan Blaeu, by J. van Rossum
1st state, 1702
-07, Paris:
des Canettespres
de St. Sulphice
c. 1702-07: ""La Pologne
dressée sur ce qu'en ont
donné StarovolskLa Pologne.
Dressee sur ce qu'en ont
donne Starovolsk, Beau-
plan, Hartnoch..," in the
first state of the plate.
2nd state, 1707
-08, Paris:
Quai de l'Horloge
a la Couronne de
4th state,
& later, Paris:
Quai de l'Horloge
a Aigle d'or;
dated 1703
3rd state, after
1708, Paris:
Quai de l'Horloge
a Aigle d'or.
Erased printing
8th state, dated
1780, with 1772
Partition coloring;
"Royale" removed;
Rue des
5th state, 1730
& later,
by Covens et
7th state, dated
1763, but depicts
1772 Partition,
Rue des
9th state, dated
1796, otherwise
same as 7th
Euler, Leonhard: 1707 - 1783, Basel, Switzerland, died in St. Petersburg,
Russia while discussing, over lunch, the newly discovered planet Uranus and
its orbit with his family and a fellow academician Anders Johan Lexell.
Swiss cartographer/astronomer/physicist, and one of the greatest mathematicians ever, Euler spent
most of his professional life in St. Petersburg (1727 - 41), in Berlin until 1766, after which he went
back to Russia. Among the atlases whose preparation he supervised, was the school atlas “Atlas
geographicus omnes orbis terrarum regiones in XLI tabulis ... / Atlas géographique représentant en
XLI cartes toutes les regions de la terre..,” created under the auspices of the Royal Prussian
Academy of Sciences in Berlin, published in 1753 with 41 maps. This edition includes a title page, a
10-page preface by Leonhard Euler in Latin and French, 41 double-page engraved maps as
mentioned in the title and preface, plus 4 additional maps. The second edition was published in 1760
with 44 maps, followed by the third unaltered edition in 1777, which was printed until 1784. The
maps, mostly based on works of Johann Christoph Rhode, were mostly engraved by Nicolaus
Friedrich Sauerbrey.
Leonhard Euler by Jakob
Emanuel Handmann (1753)
Buffier, Claude: (1661 - 1737) Born in Warsaw; died in Paris
French philosopher, historian and geographer. In 1715 he published a map, engraved by F. Desbruslins, of the Polish-Lithuanian
Commonwealth, sometimes dated 1714, in his  pocket atlas "Geographie  Universelle," which went through many editions, languages,
and publishers to 1790. Versions on this site by date and title:
1714: "LA POLOGNE Suivant les degrés de l'Académie des Sciences de Paris, 1714.”
c. 1725 (?), c. '58, '67: "POLONIA Secondo le Observazioni dell' Accademia di Parigi"
1738, '39, 1744: "LA POLOGNE Suivant les degrés de l'Académie des Sciences de Paris, Desbrulins Sculp.”
1739, '72: "LA POLOGNE Suivant les degrés de l'Académie des Sciences de Paris, 1714.”
1750, '52, '59, '68, '89: "LA POLOGNE, Suivant les degrés de l'Académie des Sciences de Paris, faure Sculp.” A Le Havre printer gives himself
engraving credit.
1762, '64, '78: "LA POLOGNE Suivant les degrés de l'Académie des Sciences de Paris"
1786: "LA POLOGNE," with "Lemarie a Liege" below the left frameline
1790: "LA POLONIA," Venice, re-engraved by Antonio Zatta, from an Italian edition of "Geografia Universale del Padre Claudio Buffier..," which had
editions in 1757, '67, '77, '82, '85, '90, '92, and 1802
Châtelaine Family, Amsterdam, atlas compilers and publishers
Zacharie, died 1723, an Amsterdam bookseller/publisher, was the founder. His sons Henri Abraham (1684-1743) and   
Zacharie Jr. (1690-1754) are best known for compiling (using primarily maps by Delisle) and publishing their seven-volume
"Atlas Historique" under a variety of imprints from 1705 - 1739. (A 2010 article by Jan W. van Waning in IMCoS # 120 credits
Zachairie, rather than Henri as the primary compiler. The specific information about Volume IV is from that article.) Of primary
interest to this site are Châtelaine maps of Poland from that atlas. Most of the claimed publish dates for their "NOUVELLE CARTE
DU ROYAUME DE POLOGNE..," with its list of "Palatinats," and for "CARTE DE POLOGNE AVEC LA CHRONOLOGIE DES  
ROIS ET DES DUCS DE LITHUANIE..,"with its genealogies, are suspect.
The only volume of "Atlas Historique" with a
map of Poland was IV: its publishing history:
1st Edition: 1714
, published by François l’Honoré & Cie; Frères Châtelain
2nd Edition: 1718, published by Frères Châtelain; L’Honoré & Châtelain
3rd Edition: 1720, published by L’Honoré & Châtelain
"Tome. 4 No. 20"
"Carte genealogique des princes et rois de Pologne..." "Tome. 4 No. 25"
4th Edition: 1735,
published by Zacharie Châtelain
"Tome. 4 No. 18" (overwriting “20”)
"Carte genealogique des princes et rois de Pologne..." "Tome. 4 No. 22"
4th Ed.
1st Ed.
3rd Ed. ?
Danckerts Family, Amsterdam
The Danckerts family of engravers and publishers was founded by was founded by Cornelis (1561-1631), a print seller. His son,
known as Cornelis the Elder (1603-56), established the family's mapmaking business. He had two sons, Dancker (1634-66), who
published c. 1657-61, and Justus the Elder (1635-1701). He had three sons: Justus the Younger, an engraver/publisher who died
1692, and two other sons who helped their father assemble atlases 1670-1700: Theodore (1663-1727) and Cornelis the Younger
(1664-1717, both of whom were accomplished engravers. In 1684, the family received a "Privilege" for 15 years, which was
renewed for another 15 when the first expired in 1699. Determining which Danckert actually engraved a map, and which one was
the actual publisher, is problematic, because the names on cartouches were not necessarily those primarily responsible. A map of
particular interest was published in two states: the first,
c. 1690, the second, c. 1700. "Regni Poloniӕ et  Ducatus
Lithuaniӕ Volniӕ Podoliӕ Vcraniӕ Prvssiӕ et Cvrlandiӕ"
is 49 x 58 cm. The earlier state lacks a label for the Baltic,
has a label only for "Memmel" along Neringa, and has simple hatching on land/sea borders; the later state has a Latin and
German label for the Baltic, many town labels along Neringa, and two-stage hatching on land/sea borders:
c. 1690 First State  From
c. 1700 Second State From
6th state, dated
1734, by
Latin 1: 1661
Royal Danish
Latin 2, c. 1668
Nat. Lib. Poland
English, 1711
Dominic Winter
P. Rigaud
Smith &
Jean Pauli,