Mapmakers of the Historic
Lithuanian Area: G - K
Gastaldi (Gastaldo, Castaldi, Castaldo), Giacomo (Jacopo): c. 1500-66. Born Villafranca,
Piedmont, died Venice
Italian astronomer, cartographer and engineer, active beginning 1539 in Venice, Gastaldi is considered the foremost Italian
cartographer of the 16th century along with Paolo Forlani.By the 1540's, as cosmographer to the Republic of Venice, he had
developed a distinctive style of copper engraving that led to his maps being used as a source by many mapmakers, including
Camocio, Bertelli, Forlani, Ramusio, Cock, Luchini and Ortelius. He engraved 60 copperplate maps for Pietro Andrea Mattioli's
Italian edition of Ptolemy's "Geographica," entitled "La Geographica di Claudio Ptolomeo Alessandrino..."
Gerritsz, Hessel: 1580 - 1632, Assum Nordholland
Dutch engraver, cartographer, publisher. Apprenticed to Willem Blaeu as an engraver, he set up on his own in Amsterdam, and
in 1617 was appointed official mapmaker for the Dutch East India Company -- and for the Dutch West India company, too, in 1621.
In that capacity he was responsible for compiling and supplying the company with accurate sea charts updated according to the
latest information from the Company's ships' logs and nnotated charts. upon his death, he was succeeded in this capacity by Blaeu.
He created many maps of both the Old and New World, but most importantly for this site, he engraved Blaeu's "Magni Ducatus
Lithuaniae..." in 1613.
Grodeckis (Grodreccius; Grodecki; Grodetius; Grodziecki), Vaclovas (Waclaw;
Wenceslaus): c. 1535-91. Born Grodziec (Silesian Voivodeship), worked in Antwerp, died in Brno
Polish cartographer, engraver. His 1557 map of Poland -- the only known example of which was lost in Munich, in 1945 -- was
re-published in Basle by Giovanni Oporini in 1562. That map was later used by Ortelius in 1570, and by others.
Jeffreys, Thomas: c. 1710-71, London
Jeffreys began his career as a copper engraver, becoming an apprentice to Emanuel Bowen in 1735, but increasingly turned to
geography and map publishing, eventually becoming one of the leading map suppliers of his era. He was appointed "Geographer
to the Prince of Wales" in 1746, and later to the King. The titles indicate that Jeffreys was seen as a reputable publisher with a
sufficiently large collection of maps to fill the prince's, or king's, personal needs. They did not represent an official position
sanctioned and salaried by the government. Government agencies used a variety of commercial cartographers to publish maps.
While his focus was primarily the New World and Great Britain, he also created maps for Gentleman's Magazine 1746 - 1757, and
collaborated with Thomas Kitchin, Laurie & Whittle, and others on regional/world atlases. Of particular interest to this
site, he engraved a map titled "Poland Lithuania and Prussia" for the first, 1749, edition of "The/A new geographical and
historical grammar..." by historian Thomas Salmon, commonly said to have gone through 14 editions through 1785. I have
researched information at the Villanova University Library, the New York Public and British Libraries, various auction houses
who had images of the title pages of editions, and Barbara Backus McCorkle's 2009 "A Carto-Bibliography of the Maps in
Eighteenth Century British and American Geography Books" (not perfect: the 1771 Edinburgh edition is actually titled "A new
geographical..." not "The new..." as she states), and I now believe there were at least 21 separate editions, the last in 1785.
The only changes in that plate over 36 years were to the cartouche, which I now believe exists in four versions:
- no vertical hatches; "T. Jeffreys sculp." centered; "and" is on a separate line
- vertical hatches; "T. Jeffreys sculp." to the right (from the last and most worn plate)
- no vertical hatches; "T. Jeffreys sculp." erased from plate
- no vertical hatches; "T. Jeffreys sculp." to the right
The First, 1772, Partition of the Polish Lithuanian Commonwealth was ignored in four separate new editions. There is no way to
confirm the publish date of a particular version of this map without having seen the title page of the edition it came from.
Below is the history of this map's editions titled either "The new-" or "A new geographical and historical grammar..." I have
not included in this summary Salmon's "gazeteers" or his "The new universal geographical grammar..."
- 1749: "1st edition," London: “A new geographical and historical grammar...”
- 1751: "2nd edition," London: “The new geographical and historical grammar...”
- 1752: "3rd edition," Dublin: "A new geographical and historical grammar..."
- 1754: "3rd edition," London: “The new geographical and historical grammar...”
- 1756: "4th edition," London: “The new geographical and historical grammar...”
- 1757: "5th edition," London: “The new geographical and historical grammar...”
- 1758: "6th edition," London: “A new geographical and historical grammar...”
- 1760: "7th edition," London: “The new geographical and historical grammar...”
- 1760: "9th edition," Dublin: "A new geographical and historical grammar..."
- 1762: "8th edition," London: “The new geographical and historical grammar...”
- 1764: "9th edition," London: “The new geographical and historical grammar...”
- 1766: "10th edition," London: “The new geographical and historical grammar...”
- 1766: "12th edition," Dublin: "A new geographical and historical grammar..."
- 1767: "New edition," Edinburgh: "A new geographical and historical grammar..."
- 1769: "11th edition," London: “A new geographical and historical grammar...”
- 1771: "14th edition," Edinburgh: "A new geographical and historical grammar..."
- 1772: "12th edition," London: “A new geographical and historical grammar...”
- 1777: "New edition," Edinburgh: "The new geographical and historical grammar..."
- 1778: "1st edition," Edinburgh: "The new geographical and historical grammar..."
- 1780: "New edition," Edinburgh: "A new geographical and historical grammar..."
- 1785: "13th edition," London: "Salmon's geographical and astronomical grammar..." Yes, a different title, but the 13th London
edition, nevertheless, according to the title page, with the very same map!
What I found, in reconsidering the 19 different images of this map on my site, was that a number of dates given by sources
for their maps was wrong: there could not be two different cartouche types in the same edition. My misgivings -- and
plate type for each image -- are now (12/10/16) on this site. In addition, I found one map, from 1782, misattributed to
Thomas Kitchin instead of to Thomas Salmon. Why can't I, now that I've verified the editions, assign a particular cartouche
type to London, Dublin or Edinburgh, or to a timespan? Because this map is twice-folded in the little atlas, and, more often
than not, the clerks at the British Library did not bother to scan the complete map -- the cartouche, on the extreme right
side, was most often only partially scanned. Auction houses selling the entire volume(s) did not choose the map of Poland
Lithuania and Prussia to reproduce. Go figure. Maybe next time I go to the British Library?
Jenvilliers (Jeanvilliers): Active 1710 - 1728
French engraver, who created maps for atlases by B. Jaillot, Fr. L. de La Salle, and J.B. Nolin.
Janssonius (Jansson; Janz; Janszoon) Family: c. 17th Century, influential in map publishing
first in Arnheim, then in Amsterdam
Johannes (Jan) I (flourished c. 1597-1629) was an Arnheim printer, publisher and bookseller who collaborated with the
Hondius family for 1607-21 editions of the Mercator-Hondius "Atlas Minor," and with Magini for his 1617 version of
Ptolemy's "Geographica." Johannes (Jan) II (1588-1664, son of I) married Elizabeth Hondius (daughter of Jocodus
Hondius the Elder and Colette van den Keere) in 1612, the same year he founded his own business in Amsterdam as a
publisher of maps, atlases and globes. 1612 was also the year that Jocodus Hondius the Elder died, and Johannes II assisted his
mother-in-law with continued publication of the Mercator-Hondius "Atlas." He also created the "Atlas Minor" in 1628, with
engravings by Pieter van den Keere and Abraham Goos. When Colette and her son Jodocus the Younger died in 1629, Johannes
II and another son of Colette's, Henricus Hondius, worked together on a complete revision of the Mercator-Hondius "Atlas." The
result became known, from 1638, as "Atlas Novus," and was published in several languages over many years. Johannes II
continued expanding the Atlas, culminating in the 11-volume "Atlas Maior," published in 1658 and later, with editions in Latin,
French, Dutch, German and English. He also created, in 1657, the eight-volume "Theatrum urbium" -- a re-issue and expansion
of Braun & Hogenberg's "Civitates" series, a feat made possible via Johannes I's purchase of their plates in 1653.
Alexis-Hubert was a trained sculptor who, as a result of a father-in-law's business, also became a print- and map-seller, publisher
and geographer. In 1670 he asked Nicolas and Guillaume Sanson to rework the elder Sanson's maps into two-sheet maps for a
planned "Atlas Nouveau," in editions of 1681, '84 and '89. Jaillot's atlas maps would become the largest format Atlas maps to be
published in a commercial atlas in the 17th Century. Shortly after the initial publication, the maps would be copied by a number of
mapmakers, including Pierre Mortier in editions of 1692, '96 and '98 in Amsterdam. Later, in 1721, Pierre's son Cornelis joined
with Johannes Covens I to form Covens & Mortier in Amsterdam. Also copying Jaillot's maps were William Berry in London and
Johann Hoffman in Nuremberg. Both the Jaillot Atlas and the Mortier Atlas would become commercially successful and would
become the forerunners to the works of other publishers, most notably Herman Moll and the Price-Senex atlases of the first part
of the 18th Century, but none of these other ventures would achieve a similar level of success and widespread distribution. A
notable Jaillot maps was titled "Estats de Pologne Subdivises suivant l'estendue des Palatinats Par Le Sr. Sanson..."
Here's a guide to dating the various versions, all of which had the same two cartouches: (The differentiated text is at the bottom of
the second cartouche.)
1675 [dated], 1685 [dated]: Jaillot, Paris, only numbers on the frameline
1692 - 1708 [dated}: Jaillot, Paris, still only numbers on the frameline
1692 - 1708 [undated]: Pierre Mortier, Amsterdam, letters added to the frameline
1721 and later: Covens et Mortier, Amsterdam, letters/numbers on the frameline
Hondius (Hondt; d'Hondt), Family: flourished 16th-17th century
as engravers, globe-makers, and publishers
Jodocus the Elder (1563-1612) began learning engraving at eight, in Belgium, moved to
London in 1583 and married Colette van den Keere (sister of Pieter). In 1593 he
moved to Amsterdam to set up an engraving workshop, and moved into bookselling. In
1604 he acquired Mercator's atlas plates, added to them, and re-issued "Atlas" in 1606,
from then on known as the Mercator-Hondius Atlas. In 1607 he created, along with
Johannes Jansssonius and Cornelius Claesz, a reduced-size version: "Atlas Minor," with
Latin text and 152 maps. Eight more editions were published, with varying numbers of
maps, in, German, French or Latin. He also created "Nova et exacta totius orbis terrarum
descriptio," in 12 sheets. After his death in 1612, the business was continued by his
widow, and by his sons Henricus (1597- 1651) and Jodocus the Younger (1594-1629),
and by his son- in-law Johannes Janssonius II. Jodocus the Younger started his own
business by 1621 (as did his brother Henricus) and, after his death, 36 map plates were
sold which formed the nucleus of the Blaeu atlas series.
|Title page, "L'Atlas ou méditations
Cosmographiques.." 1630, with "Gerardus
Mercator" and "Judocus Hondius"
Jode (Judaeis, Judaeus, Iuddeis), Gerard de: 1509-91. Born Nijmegan;
active in Antwerp c. 1550.
Engraver, printer, print seller, publisher and cartographer, and father of Cornelius de Jode. Re-engraved
Giacomo Gastaldi's "Universalis exactissima atquae non recens modo..." in 1555. Publications include
"Speculum Orbis Terrarum," 1578, with several maps engraved by Johan and Lucas van Doetichum,
with some maps dating from 1569. His son Cornelis (1568 - 1600) was an engraver, publisher and
scholar of Antwerp. Following his death, his plates passed into the possession of Jan Baptist Vrients.
|1754 Thomas Jeffreys
- Thomas Salmon map
with "B" cartouche
Homann and Heirs (Erben), Nuremberg; Johann Baptiste: 1664
- 1724; Johann Christoph: 1703-30; Heirs: 1730 - 1852
Self-taught copper engraver who founded his own cartographic/publishing firm in 1702,
with his first atlas published 1707. Appointed Geographer to the King 1715. His son and
successor, Johann C., was also an engraver and publisher who ran the business from
1724 to his death in 1730, whereupon the company became known as Homann Heirs,
and by 1813 had issued over 900 maps. It finally closed in 1852. Of particular interest
on this site is the J.B. Homann map, first published 1712: "Regni Poloniæ Magnique
Ducatus Lithuaniæ nova et exacta ad mentem Starovolcii descripta.,"
pictured on the right, along with the two identifying elements: the bottom of the
cartouche and the "Author sculpsit" just above the frameline on the lower right.
|c. 1728 J.B.
|1712 First State
Keere Family: 16th-17th century Amsterdam publishers who worked closely with other mapmakers,
engravers and publishers of the period.
Engraver Hendrick van den Keere's (died c.1580) daughter, Colette, married one of his apprentices: Jodocus Hondius
(the Elder). Pieter (1571-c1646), Colette's brother, was a copper plate engraver (trained by his brother-in-law, Jodocus
Hondius), globe publisher and bookseller. He was also the step-brother of Petrus Bertius (having married his sister), and uncle
of Abraham Goos. Pieter created, in 1595, along with Jodocus Hondius, "Nova totius Europae descriptio," a wall chart in 15
sheets. Another of his many productions were the engravings for the "Atlas Minor Gerardi Mercatoris...," which he did in 1628
for Janssonius, published in editions through 1662.
Kitchin (Kitchen), Thomas: 1719-84. Born Southwark, England
Mapmaker, engraver, and Hydrographer to George III. Apprenticed to Emanuel Bowen in 1732, married his daughter in
1739, worked independently from 1741. Worked with Jeffreys and many others (including his son, Thomas Bowen, who
continued the business after his father's death) to produce many atlases.
Jaillot, Alexis Hubert: c. 1632 - 1712, born Saint-Claude, moved to Paris 1657