Mapmakers of the Historic
Lithuanian Area: G - L
Gastaldi (Gastaldo, Castaldi, Castaldo), Giacomo (Jacopo): c1500 - 1566. Born Villafranca,
Piedmont, died Venice
Italian astronomer, cartographer and engineer, active beginning 1539 in Venice, Gastaldi is considered the foremost Italian
cartographer of the 16th century along with Paolo Forlani.By the 1540's, as cosmographer to the Republic of Venice, he had
developed a distinctive style of copper engraving that led to his maps being used as a source by many mapmakers, including
Camocio, Bertelli, Forlani, Ramusio, Cock, Luchini and Ortelius. He engraved 60 copperplate maps for Pietro Andrea Mattioli's
Italian edition of Ptolemy's "Geographica," entitled "La Geographica di Claudio Ptolomeo Alessandrino..."
Gerritsz, Hessel: 1580 - 1632, Assum Nordholland
Dutch engraver, cartographer, publisher. Apprenticed to Willem Blaeu as an engraver, he set up on his own in Amsterdam, and
in 1617 was appointed official mapmaker for the Dutch East India Company -- and for the Dutch West India company, too, in 1621.
In that capacity he was responsible for compiling and supplying the company with accurate sea charts updated according to the
latest information from the Company's ships' logs and nnotated charts. upon his death, he was succeeded in this capacity by Blaeu.
He created many maps of both the Old and New World, but most importantly for this site, he engraved Blaeu's "Magni Ducatus
Lithuaniae..." in 1613.
Grodeckis (Grodreccius; Grodecki; Grodetius; Grodziecki), Vaclovas (Waclaw;
Wenceslaus): c.1535 - 1591. Born Grodziec (Silesian Voivodeship), worked in Antwerp, died in Brno
Polish cartographer, engraver. His 1557 map of Poland -- the only known example of which was lost in Munich, in 1945 -- was
re-published in Basle by Giovanni Oporini in 1562. That map was later used by Ortelius in 1570, and by others.
Jeffreys, Thomas: c1710 - 1771, London
Jeffreys began his career as a copper engraver, becoming an apprentice to Emanuel Bowen in 1735, but increasingly turned to
geography and map publishing, eventually becoming one of the leading map suppliers of his era. He was appointed "Geographer to
the Prince of Wales" in 1746, and later to the King. The titles indicate that Jeffreys was seen as a reputable publisher with a
sufficiently large collection of maps to fill the prince's, or king's, personal needs. They did not represent an official position
sanctioned and salaried by the government. Government agencies used a variety of commercial cartographers to publish maps.
While his focus was primarily the New World and Great Britain, he also created maps for Gentleman's Magazine 1746 - 1757, and
collaborated with Thomas Kitchin, Laurie & Whittle, and others on regional/world atlases. Of particular interest to this site,
he engraved a map titled "Poland Lithuania and Prussia" for the first, 1749, edition of "The/A new geographical and historical
grammar..." by historian Thomas Salmon, commonly said to have gone through 14 editions through 1785. I have researched
information at the Villanova University Library, the New York Public and British Libraries, various auction houses who had images
of the title pages of editions, and Barbara Backus McCorkle's 2009 "A Carto-Bibliography of the Maps in Eighteenth Century British
and American Geography Books" (not perfect: the 1771 Edinburgh edition is actually titled "A new geographical..." not "The new..."
as she states), and I now believe there were at least 21 separate editions, the last in 1785. The only changes in that plate over
36 years were to the cartouche, which I now believe exists in four versions:
- no vertical hatches; "T. Jeffreys sculp." centered; "and" is on a separate line
- vertical hatches; "T. Jeffreys sculp." to the right (from the last and most worn plate)
- no vertical hatches; "T. Jeffreys sculp." erased from plate
- no vertical hatches; "T. Jeffreys sculp." to the right
The First, 1772, Partition of the Polish Lithuanian Commonwealth was ignored in four separate new editions. There is no way to
confirm the publish date of a particular version of this map without having seen the title page of the edition it came from. Below
is the history of this map's editions titled either "The new-" or "A new geographical and historical grammar..." I have not included
in this summary Salmon's "gazeteers" or his "The new universal geographical grammar..."
- 1749: "1st edition," London: “A new geographical and historical grammar...”
- 1751: "2nd edition," London: “The new geographical and historical grammar...”
- 1752: "3rd edition," Dublin: "A new geographical and historical grammar..."
- 1754: "3rd edition," London: “The new geographical and historical grammar...”
- 1756: "4th edition," London: “The new geographical and historical grammar...”
- 1757: "5th edition," London: “The new geographical and historical grammar...”
- 1758: "6th edition," London: “A new geographical and historical grammar...”
- 1760: "7th edition," London: “The new geographical and historical grammar...”
- 1760: "9th edition," Dublin: "A new geographical and historical grammar..."
- 1762: "8th edition," London: “The new geographical and historical grammar...”
- 1764: "9th edition," London: “The new geographical and historical grammar...”
- 1766: "10th edition," London: “The new geographical and historical grammar...”
- 1766: "12th edition," Dublin: "A new geographical and historical grammar..."
- 1767: "New edition," Edinburgh: "A new geographical and historical grammar..."
- 1769: "11th edition," London: “A new geographical and historical grammar...”
- 1771: "14th edition," Edinburgh: "A new geographical and historical grammar..."
- 1772: "12th edition," London: “A new geographical and historical grammar...”
- 1777: "New edition," Edinburgh: "The new geographical and historical grammar..."
- 1778: "1st edition," Edinburgh: "The new geographical and historical grammar..."
- 1780: "New edition," Edinburgh: "A new geographical and historical grammar..."
- 1785: "13th edition," London: "Salmon's geographical and astronomical grammar..." Yes, a different title, but the 13th London edition,
nevertheless, according to the title page, with the very same map!
What I found, in reconsidering the 19 different images of this map on my site, was that a number of dates given by sources for
their maps was wrong: there could not be two different cartouche types in the same edition. My misgivings -- and plate type
for each image -- are now (12/10/16) on this site. In addition, I found one map, from 1782, misattributed to Thomas Kitchin
instead of to Thomas Salmon. Why can't I, now that I've verified the editions, assign a particular cartouche type to London,
Dublin or Edinburgh, or to a timespan? Because this map is twice-folded in the little atlas, and, more often than not, the clerks
at the British Library did not bother to scan the complete map -- the cartouche, on the extreme right side, was most often
only partially scanned. Auction houses selling the entire volume(s) did not choose the map of Poland Lithuania and Prussia to
reproduce. Go figure. Maybe next time I go to the British Library?
Jenvilliers (Jeanvilliers): Active 1710 - 1728
French engraver, who created maps for atlases by B. Jaillot, Fr. L. de La Salle, and J.B. Nolin.
Kitchin (Kitchen), Thomas: 1719 - 1784. Born Southwark, England
Mapmaker, engraver, and Hydrographer to George III. Apprenticed to Emanuel Bowen in 1732, married his daughter in 1739,
worked independently from 1741. Worked with Jeffreys and many others (including his son, Thomas Bowen, who continued the
business after his father's death) to produce many atlases.
Lelewel, Joachim: 1786 - 1861. Born Warsaw, died Paris
Polish historian, mathematician, politician and collector. Professor of History, University of Wilna, Lithuania, 1815-1818. Designer
of more than 200 maps and atlases about medieval history and the history of discoveries. Pioneer writer on the history of
cartography, with nine major works, including "Atlas do Dziekow Polskich," Warsaw, 1829; "Atlas zur Geschichte Polens," Leipzig,
1846; "Geographie du Moyen Age" in 5 volumes, with an atlas containing 145 maps.
Levasseur de Beauplan, Guillaume: 1595 - 1685
French military engineer in the service of Ladislaus IV, King of Poland, 1630 - 1647. His 1650"Ukraine" in 8 sheets, engraved by
Hondius, is believed to be the first European military map of a large area: "Nova totius Regni Poloniae...," 1652.
Keere Family: 16th-17th century Amsterdam publishers who worked closely with other mapmakers,
engravers and publishers of the period.
Engraver Hendrick van den Keere's (died c.1580) daughter, Colette, married one of his apprentices: Jodocus Hondius (the
Elder). Pieter (1571-c1646), Colette's brother, was a copper plate engraver (trained by his brother-in-law, Jodocus Hondius), globe
publisher and bookseller. He was also the step-brother of Petrus Bertius (having married his sister), and uncle of Abraham Goos.
Pieter created, in 1595, along with Jodocus Hondius, "Nova totius Europae descriptio," a wall chart in 15 sheets. Another of his many
productions were the engravings for the "Atlas Minor Gerardi Mercatoris...," which he did in 1628 for Janssonius, published in
editions through 1662.
Janssonius (Jansson; Janz; Janszoon) Family: c.17th Century, influential in map publishing first
in Arnheim, then in Amsterdam
Johannes (Jan) I (flourished c1597-1629) was an Arnheim printer, publisher and bookseller who collaborated with the Hondius
family for 1607-21 editions of the Mercator-Hondius "Atlas Minor," and with Magini for his 1617 version of Ptolemy's
"Geographica." Johannes (Jan) II (1588-1664, son of I) married Elizabeth Hondius (daughter of Jocodus Hondius the Elder
and Colette van den Keere) in 1612, the same year he founded his own business in Amsterdam as a publisher of maps, atlases and
globes. 1612 was also the year that Jocodus Hondius the Elder died, and Johannes II assisted his mother-in-law with continued
publication of the Mercator-Hondius "Atlas." He also created the "Atlas Minor" in 1628, with engravings by Pieter van den Keere
and Abraham Goos. When Colette and her son Jocodus the Younger died in 1629, Johannes II and another son of Colette's,
Henricus Hondius, worked together on a complete revision of the Mercator-Hondius "Atlas." The result became known, from 1638,
as "Atlas Novus," and was published in several languages over many years. Johannes II continued expanding the Atlas, culminating
in the 11-volume "Atlas Maior," published in 1658 and later, with editions in Latin, French, Dutch, German and English. He also
created, in 1657, the eight-volume "Theatrum urbium" -- a re-issue and expansion of Braun & Hogenberg's "Civitates" series, a
feat made possible via Johannes I's purchase of their plates in 1653.
Jaillot, Alexis-Hubert: born c1632; died 1712, Paris
Alexis-Hubert was a trained sculptor who, as a result of a father-in-law's business, also became a print- and map-seller, publisher
and geographer. Much of his output was based on maps by Nicolas Sanson, in the form of editions prepared for him by Adrien
and Guillaume Sanson. In 1670 he asked them to rework the elder Sanson's maps to create the "Atlas Nouveau," in editions of
1681, '84 and '89 (editions of 1692, '96 and '98 were pirated by P. Mortier in Amsterdam).
Hondius (Hondt; d'Hondt), Family: flourished
16th-17th century as engravers, globe-makers, and
Jodocus the Elder (1563-1612) began learning engraving at
eight, in Belgium, moved to London in 1583 and married Colette
van den Keere (sister of Pieter). In 1593 he moved to
Amsterdam to set up an engraving workshop, and moved into
bookselling. In 1604 he acquired Mercator's atlas plates, added to
them, and re-issued "Atlas" in 1606, from then on known as the
Mercator-Hondius Atlas. In 1607 he created, along with Johannes
Jansssonius and Cornelius Claesz, a reduced-size version: "Atlas
Minor," with Latin text and 152 maps. Eight more editions were
published, with varying numbers of maps, in, German, French or
Latin. He also created "Nova et exacta totius orbis terrarum
descriptio," in 12 sheets. After his death in 1612, the business
was continued by his widow, and by his sons Henricus (1597-
1651) and Jodocus the Younger (1594-1629), and by his son-
in-law Johannes Janssonius II. Jodocus the Younger started
his own business by 1621 (as did his brother Henricus) and, after
his death, 36 map plates were sold which formed the nucleus of
the Blaeu atlas series.
Title page, "L'Atlas ou méditations Cosmographiques.." 1630, with
"Gerardus Mercator" and "Judocus Hondius"
Jode (Judaeis, Judaeus, Iuddeis), Gerard de: 1509 -1591. Born Nijmegan;
active in Antwerp c1550.
Engraver, printer, print seller, publisher and cartographer, and father of Cornelius de Jode. Re-engraved
Giacomo Gastaldi's "Universalis exactissima atquae non recens modo..." in 1555. Publications include
"Speculum Orbis Terrarum," 1578, with several maps engraved by Johan and Lucas van Doetichum,
with some maps dating from 1569. His son Cornelis (1568 - 1600) was an engraver, publisher and
scholar of Antwerp. Following his death, his plates passed into the possession of Jan Baptist Vrients.
1754 Thomas Jeffreys
- Thomas Salmon map