Maps: 1594 - 1600
c1596 Gerard Mercator: "Livonia," Duisberg. 18 x 14 inches, from "Atlas, sive
Cosmographicae Meditationes de Fabrica Mundi."
c1595 Vaclovas Grodeckis  - Abraham Ortelius: "POLONIÆ LITVANIÆ Q DESCRIPTIO," Amsterdam, 38 x 50.5 cm./ 14.5 x 19.125 inches, in five
differently-colored versions, all from "Theatrum Orbis Terrarum," the first modern atlas: the first systematic collection of maps that included all
parts of the world, with maps in a uniform format. Ortelius collected the best available maps and had them re-engraved in a uniform size. It also is
the first printed book of any kind to footnote sources. This is the first issue of Ortelius’s second map of Poland and Lithuania, which replaced the
earlier plate dating from 1570 illustrated on the previous page. The title has been changed and the cartouche redesigned, and there are alterations
to the geography particularly on the right-hand (eastern) side of the map.
The first map is from; the third map is from;
the fourth  map is from; the fifth map is from
c1596 Gerard Mercator: "LITHVANIA." Only his “Chronology” and the “Ptolemaic Geographica” were completed in Mercator's lifetime. His
son, Rumold, completed and published a three-volume Atlas in 1595: “Atlas sive Cosmographicae Meditationes de Fabrica Mundi” in
Duisburg – the first time “Atlas” was applied to a bound collection of maps. After Rumold’s death, plates for the atlas were published in 1602
by Gerard Jr. Following his death in 1604, the stock was bought at auction by Jodocus Hondius, and re-issued for 30 years.
1596 Bussemacher -
Grodeckis (Godreccio)-
Mathias Quad:
Jean Matal (Metellus) - Giovanni Botero  - Matthias
(publisher of the 1600 version): "POLONIA
LITHANIA LIVONIA," 7.5 x 11.6 inches / 19.50 × 29.50
cm, in two versions published four years apart from the
Latin edition of Botero's "Theatrum Principum Orbis
Universi." The map is after Mercator, North on right.
1596:  Giovanni Antonio Magini - Girolamo Porro (engraver): "POLONIAE REGNVM," Venice, 7 x 5 inches, from the Latin "Geographiae
Universae tum Veteris tum Novae Absolutissimum."
1597: The first edition of Leonardo Cernoti's Italian translation of Magini's
"Geographiae," published by G. B. Galignani & G. Galignani in 1597-98.
Are the the first two maps  by Giovanni Antonio Magini, published a year apart, identical? No! Look at  the detail enlargements of each map, of
an area of where changes to the plate are most obvious: changes to the  inscription "Balticum Mare" (Baltic Sea), and to the background
stippling. You'll see many maps at this site that may look identical at first glance, but which are different, either to the plate or to the coloring.
1598 Vaclovas Grodeckis  -
Abraham Ortelius
DESCRIPTIO," Amsterdam,
38 x 50.5 cm.  From
"Theatrum Orbis
(Yet another
version of this venerable
1598-99 Pietro Marchetti (engraver, best noted for plagiarizing Ortelius' 1577 miniature atlas)) - G. Botero (publisher): "Poloniæ Descripto,"
Brescia, in four versions of a miniaturized (4 1/2 x 3 1/2 inch) 1570 Ortelius map, from his "Relationi Universali."
1600 Abraham Ortelius:
1600 Johannes Bussemacher -
Grodeckis: "Poloniæ..."
Abraham Ortelius, published
by Matthias Quad.
1598 Philippe Galle: "POLONIA," 4.25 x 3
inches, Antwerp, from a miniature French
edition of maps originally engraved by
Abraham Ortelius, one of many editions in
many languages Galle published until
1601, when the rights passed to Jan.Baptise
(See a nearly identical Ortelius map
from 1592.)
AK-29, oriuginally acquired from
Librarie Le Bail
1596 Giovanni Botero:
LIVONIA,"Cologne, from
his "Theatrum Orbis
Principum universe,"
with north on the right.
From the Univ. of Tartu, Estonia:
1598 Pietro Maria Marchetti (publisher): "LIVONIÆ NOVA DESCRIPTIO IOANNE PORTANTIO
AUCTORE," Brescia and Venice, 4.2 x 2.8 inches /10.7 x 7.2 cm, on a printed page with Italian text
measuring 5.5 x 7.5 inches, in three versions from his "Il Theatro del Mondo," the second pocket
atlas based on
Abraham Ortelius' folio "Theatrum." Note that "Lithvaniae Pars" is delineated east of
"Duneberg." It is often referred to as the plagiarized version of the Epitome., because the plates are
closely copied from those of Philip Galle's 1593 Italian edition, authorized by Ortelius. This map
gives appropriate credit to Jan Portant, and his 1573 map of Livonia. He, in turn, may have based
his map on earlier -- and since lost -- maps by Caspar Henneberger.
1598 Jan Portant: "Livoniæ nova
descriptio / Ioanne Portantio auctore," in a
map often credited to Ortelius, whereas
the reality is that Ortelius, De Jode, and
many others, made small changes to
Portant's 1573 map.
Attributed to Ortelius by
the National Library of Latvia:
1598  Sebastian Munster: "Von dem
konigreich Poland," from his "Cosmograph-
ia," published 1544 - 1628. Compare with
the 1569 version.
From adlers-raritaetentruhe
on eBay
1598 Sebastian Munster: "Das vierdt
buch." miniature "Cosmographia"
(published 1544 - 1628) atlas page, 8 x
12 inches, the map 6 3/4 x 10 1/2
inches. Compare with the 1569 version.
From adlers-rariaetentruhe on eBay
1598 - 1606 Petrus Bertius: ""LIVONIÆ
descrip." Amsterdam, 90 x 125 mm
copperplate from a Dutch pocket atlas.
1598 Girolamo Ruscelli: "TAVOLA NVOVA DI PRVSSIA ET DI LIVONIA," Venice, 10 x 7
inches, from his "Geographia," in two versions, both the third state of his map,
identifiable by the inclusion of a sailing ship. Compare with the 1561, 1562, 1564 and
1574 versions.
1600 Jan Portant: "Livoniæ nova
descriptio / Ioanne Portantio avctore," in a
map often credited to Ortelius, whereas
the reality is that Ortelius, De Jode, and
many others made small changes to
Portant's 1573 map. Compare with the
1598 version and see the difference in the
From the National Library of Latvia:
1598 Giovanni Botero:
"LIVONIA." Sheet 15,5 x 21
cm / 6 x 8 inches.
From smardic
on eBay
Roderick Barron
The Library of Congress, via wikicommons
US Library of Congress
regiomontanus on eBay
regiomontanus on eBay
cesgia on eBay
Peter Bierl Buch- &
Kunstantiquariat, Eurasburg,
Germany, via
Beach Antique Maps and Prints: cesgia on eBay
Girolamo Ruscelli (alchemist/cartographer/translator) - Giuseppe Rosaccio (cosmographer/
revising cartographer/editor)
cm /10  x 7 inches, from the Italian translation of Ptolemy's Geographia": "La Geographia
di Caludio Tolomeo...". Ruscelli's 1561 atlas was an expanded version of Gastaldi's 1548
atlas. Ruscelli and Gastaldi's maps were engraved on copper, a turning point in the history
of cartography. From that point on, the majority of cartographic works used this medium.
Harder than wood, it gave the engraver the ability to render more detail. The 1st edition
was in Latin, all later editions were translated into Italian.
1599 Fourth Ed.
Post 1599 Sixth Ed.