Maps: 1594 - 1600
c. 1596 Gerard Mercator: "Livonia," Duisberg. 18 x 14
inches, from "Atlas, sive Cosmographicae Meditationes
de Fabrica Mundi."
1595-98 Vaclovas Grodeckis (original cartographer/engraver) - Andrzej Pograbski (correcting cartographer) - Abraham Ortelius (publisher): "POLONIÆ, LITVANIÆ Q. DESCRIPTIO.," Amsterdam or Antwerp, 38 x 50.5 cm./ 14.5 x 19.125
inches, in differently-colored versions, all from "Theatrum Orbis Terrarum," the first modern atlas: the first systematic collection of maps that included all parts of the world, with maps in a uniform format. Ortelius collected the best
available maps and had them re-engraved in a uniform size. It also is the first printed book of any kind to footnote sources. This is the first issue of Ortelius’s second map of Poland and Lithuania, which replaced the earlier plate
illustrated on the previous page. The title has been changed and the cartouche redesigned, and there are alterations to the geography, particularly on the right-hand (eastern) side of the map. Sources which say the
corrections/additions first appeared in 1598 are mistaken.
c. 1596 Gerard Mercator: "LITHVANIA." Only his “Chronology” and the “Ptolemaic Geographica” were completed in Mercator's lifetime. His son, Rumold, completed and published a three-
volume Atlas in 1595: “Atlas sive Cosmographicae Meditationes de Fabrica Mundi” in Duisburg – the first time “Atlas” was applied to a bound collection of maps. After Rumold’s death,
plates for the atlas were published in 1602 by Gerard Jr. Following his death in 1604, the stock was bought at auction by Jodocus Hondius, and re-issued for 30 years.
1596 Johannes  Busse-
- Mathias
Jean Matal (Metellus) - Giovanni Botero  - Matthias
(publisher of the 1600 version): "POLONIA
LITHANIA LIVONIA," 7.5 x 11.6 inches / 19.50 × 29.50
cm, from the Latin edition of Botero's "Theatrum
Principum Orbis Universi." The map is after Mercator.
1596:  Giovanni Antonio Magini - Girolamo Porro (engraver): "POLONIAE REGNVM," Venice, 7 x 5 inches, from the Latin "Geographiae
Universae tum Veteris tum Novae Absolutissimum."
1597: The first edition of Leonardo Cernoti's Italian translation of Magini's
"Geographiae," published by G. B. Galignani & G. Galignani. See the 1617 version.
Are the the first two maps  by Giovanni Antonio Magini, published a year apart, identical? No! Look at  the detail enlargements of each map, of
an area of where changes to the plate are most obvious: changes to the  inscription "Balticum Mare" (Baltic Sea), and to the background
stippling. You'll see many maps at this site that may look identical at first glance, but which are different, either to the plate or to the coloring.
1598-99 Pietro Marchetti (engraver, best noted for plagiarizing Ortelius' 1577 miniature atlas)) - G. Botero (publisher): "Poloniae Descriptio," Brescia, in versions of a pirated and miniaturized (4
1/2 x 3 1/2 inches) 1570 Ortelius map, from his Italian-language "Relationi Universali."
1600 Abraham Ortelius:
'POLONIA." See the 1579
1600 Vaclovas Grodeckis (original
mapmaker) -
 Johannes Bussemacher  
engraver/printer of Ortelius' redo) -
Ortelius, (revising mapmaker) -  
Matthias Quad
(publisher): "Poloniæ
finitmarumque locorum descriptio..,"
Cologne, 18 x 27 cm. Quad was a pocket
atlas publisher whose editions were
cheaper alternatives to the larger folio
atlases of Ortelius, Mercator, and De Jode
-- whose maps were the sources for Quad's
atlas maps. This map is from Quad's
second pocket atlas: "Geographisch
Handtbuch," the first atlas originally
written with German text, with 82 maps.
His first pocket atlas, 1592's
"Europae...Descriptio," had 38 maps,
expanded in 1594 to 50 maps. His third
and last  pocket atlas, with 86 maps, was
1608's "Fasciculus Geographicus."
1598 Philippe Galle: "POLONIA," 4.25 x 3
inches, Antwerp, from a miniature French
edition of maps originally engraved by
Abraham Ortelius, one of many editions in
many languages Galle published until
1601, when the rights passed to Jan.Baptise
(See a nearly identical Ortelius map
from 1592.)
AK-29, oriuginally acquired from
Librarie Le Bail
1598 Pietro Maria Marchetti (publisher): "LIVONIÆ NOVA DESCRIPTIO IOANNE PORTANTIO AUCTORE," Brescia and Venice, 4.2
x 2.8 inches /10.7 x 7.2 cm, on a printed page with Italian text measuring 5.5 x 7.5 inches, in versions from his "Il Theatro del
Mondo," the second pocket atlas based on
Abraham Ortelius' folio "Theatrum." Note that "Lithvaniae Pars" is delineated east of
"Duneberg." It is often referred to as the plagiarized version of the Epitome, because the plates are closely copied from those of Philip
Galle's 1593 Italian edition, authorized by Ortelius. This map gives appropriate credit to Jan Portant, and his 1573 map of
Livonia. He, in turn, may have based his map on earlier -- and since lost -- maps by Caspar Henneberger.
Jan Portant: "Livoniæ nova descriptio / Ioanne Portantio auctore," in two versions of a
map often credited to Ortelius, whereas the reality is that Ortelius, De Jode, and many
others, made small changes to Portant's 1573 map. See the 1600 map's changes in the
Attributed to Ortelius by the National Library of Latvia:
1598  Sebastian Munster: "Von dem
konigreich Poland," from his "Cosmograph-
ia," published 1544 - 1628. Compare with
the 1569 version.
From adlers-raritaetentruhe
on eBay
1598 Sebastian Munster: "Das vierdt
buch." miniature "Cosmographia"
(published 1544 - 1628) atlas page, 8 x
12 inches, the map 6 3/4 x 10 1/2
inches. Compare with the 1569 version.
From adlers-rariaetentruhe on eBay
1598 Girolamo Ruscelli: "TAVOLA NVOVA DI PRVSSIA ET DI LIVONIA," Venice, 10 x 7
inches, from his "Geographia," in two versions, both the third state of his map,
identifiable by the inclusion of a sailing ship. Compare with the 1561, 1562, 1564 and
1574 versions.
1598 Giovanni Botero:
"LIVONIA." Sheet 15,5 x 21
cm / 6 x 8 inches.
From smardic
on eBay
Roderick Barron
The Library of Congress,
via wikicommons
US Library of Congress
regiomontanus on eBay
regiomontanus on eBay
cesgia on eBay
Peter Bierl Buch- &
Kunstantiquariat, Eurasburg,
Germany, via
Beach Antique Maps and Prints: cesgia on eBay
Girolamo Ruscelli (alchemist/cartographer/translator) - Giuseppe Rosaccio (cosmographer/
revising cartographer/editor)
cm /10  x 7 inches, from the Italian translation of Ptolemy's Geographia": "La Geographia
di Caludio Tolomeo...". Ruscelli's 1561 atlas was an expanded version of Gastaldi's 1548
atlas. Ruscelli and Gastaldi's maps were engraved on copper, a turning point in the history
of cartography. From that point on, the majority of cartographic works used this medium.
Harder than wood, it gave the engraver the ability to render more detail. The 1st edition
was in Latin, all later editions were translated into Italian.
1599 Fourth Ed.
Post 1599 Sixth Ed.
1596 Johannes Busse-
- Matthias Quad
Descriptio..," Cologne, 7
x 10 inches.
rasmussen.maps on eBay
1598 Johannes Metellus (geographer):
"LIVONIA Lieflant Liuoniae," Cologne, 5.7
x 7.9 inches / 14.5 x 20.0 cm
possibly from "Itinerarium Orbis
Christiani," thought to be the earliest road
atlas of Europe.
Dating this map
1596 Giovanni Botero:
LIVONIA,"Cologne, from
his "Theatrvm Principvm
Orbis Vniversi..," with
north on the right.
the Univ. of Tartu, Estonia:
Yale's Beinecke Library:
c. 1598
National Library of Poland
c. 1598
National Library of Poland
c. 1598
National Library of Poland
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