Maps: 1594 - 1600
c1596 Gerard Mercator: "Livonia," Duisberg. 18 x 14
inches, from "Atlas, sive Cosmographicae Meditationes
de Fabrica Mundi."
c1595-98 Vaclovas Grodeckis (original cartographer/engraver) - Andrzej Pograbski (correcting cartographer) - Abraham Ortelius (publisher): "POLONIÆ, LITVANIÆ Q. DESCRIPTIO.," Amsterdam or Antwerp,
38 x 50.5 cm./ 14.5 x 19.125 inches, in differently-colored versions, all from "Theatrum Orbis Terrarum," the first modern atlas: the first systematic collection of maps that included all parts of the world,
with maps in a uniform format. Ortelius collected the best available maps and had them re-engraved in a uniform size. It also is the first printed book of any kind to footnote sources. This is the first issue of
Ortelius’s second map of Poland and Lithuania, which replaced the earlier plate illustrated on the previous page. The title has been changed and the cartouche redesigned, and there are alterations to the
geography, particularly on the right-hand (eastern) side of the map. Sources which say the corrections/additions first appeared in 1598 are mistaken.
c1596 Gerard Mercator: "LITHVANIA." Only his “Chronology” and the “Ptolemaic Geographica” were completed in Mercator's lifetime. His
son, Rumold, completed and published a three-volume Atlas in 1595: “Atlas sive Cosmographicae Meditationes de Fabrica Mundi” in
Duisburg – the first time “Atlas” was applied to a bound collection of maps. After Rumold’s death, plates for the atlas were published in 1602
by Gerard Jr. Following his death in 1604, the stock was bought at auction by Jodocus Hondius, and re-issued for 30 years.
1596 Johannes Busse-
mapmaker) - Mathias
Jean Matal (Metellus) - Giovanni Botero - Matthias
Quad (publisher of the 1600 version): "POLONIA
LITHANIA LIVONIA," 7.5 x 11.6 inches / 19.50 × 29.50
cm, in two versions published four years apart from the
Latin edition of Botero's "Theatrum Principum Orbis
Universi." The map is after Mercator, North on right.
1596: Giovanni Antonio Magini - Girolamo Porro (engraver): "POLONIAE REGNVM," Venice, 7 x 5 inches, from the Latin "Geographiae
Universae tum Veteris tum Novae Absolutissimum." 1597: The first edition of Leonardo Cernoti's Italian translation of Magini's
"Geographiae," published by G. B. Galignani & G. Galignani. See the 1617 version.
Are the the first two maps by Giovanni Antonio Magini, published a year apart, identical? No! Look at the detail enlargements of each map, of
an area of where changes to the plate are most obvious: changes to the inscription "Balticum Mare" (Baltic Sea), and to the background
stippling. You'll see many maps at this site that may look identical at first glance, but which are different, either to the plate or to the coloring.
1598 Vaclovas Grodeckis -
"POLONIÆ LITVANIÆ Q
38 x 50.5 cm. From
Terrarum." (Yet another
version of this venerable
1598-99 Pietro Marchetti (engraver, best noted for plagiarizing Ortelius' 1577 miniature atlas)) - G. Botero (publisher): "Poloniæ Descripto,"
Brescia, in four versions of a miniaturized (4 1/2 x 3 1/2 inch) 1570 Ortelius map, from his "Relationi Universali."
1600 Vaclovas Grodeckis (original
mapmaker) - Johannes Bussemacher
(engraver/printer of Ortelius' redo) -
Abraham Ortelius, (revising mapmaker) -
Matthias Quad (publisher): "Poloniæ
finitmarumque locorum descriptio..,"
Cologne, 18 x 27 cm. Quad was a pocket
atlas publisher whose editions were
cheaper alternatives to the larger folio
atlases of Ortelius, Mercator, and De Jode
-- whose maps were the sources for Quad's
atlas maps. This map is from Quad's
second pocket atlas: "Geographisch
Handtbuch," the first atlas originally
written with German text, with 82 maps.
His first pocket atlas, 1592's
"Europae...Descriptio," had 38 maps,
expanded in 1594 to 50 maps. His third
and last pocket atlas, with 86 maps, was
1608's "Fasciculus Geographicus." From
1598 Philippe Galle: "POLONIA," 4.25 x 3
inches, Antwerp, from a miniature French
edition of maps originally engraved by
Abraham Ortelius, one of many editions in
many languages Galle published until
1601, when the rights passed to Jan.Baptise
Vrients. (See a nearly identical Ortelius map
from 1592.) AK-29, oriuginally acquired from
Librarie Le Bail
1598 Pietro Maria Marchetti (publisher): "LIVONIÆ NOVA DESCRIPTIO IOANNE PORTANTIO AUCTORE," Brescia and Venice, 4.2
x 2.8 inches /10.7 x 7.2 cm, on a printed page with Italian text measuring 5.5 x 7.5 inches, in four versions from his "Il Theatro
del Mondo," the second pocket atlas based on Abraham Ortelius' folio "Theatrum." Note that "Lithvaniae Pars" is delineated east of
"Duneberg." It is often referred to as the plagiarized version of the Epitome., because the plates are closely copied from those of
Philip Galle's 1593 Italian edition, authorized by Ortelius. This map gives appropriate credit to Jan Portant, and his 1573 map of
Livonia. He, in turn, may have based his map on earlier -- and since lost -- maps by Caspar Henneberger.
Jan Portant: "Livoniæ nova descriptio / Ioanne Portantio auctore," in two versions of a
map often credited to Ortelius, whereas the reality is that Ortelius, De Jode, and many
others, made small changes to Portant's 1573 map. See the 1600 map's changes in the
cartouche. Attributed to Ortelius by the National Library of Latvia:
1598 Sebastian Munster: "Von dem
konigreich Poland," from his "Cosmograph-
ia," published 1544 - 1628. Compare with
the 1569 version. From adlers-raritaetentruhe
1598 Sebastian Munster: "Das vierdt
buch." miniature "Cosmographia"
(published 1544 - 1628) atlas page, 8 x
12 inches, the map 6 3/4 x 10 1/2
inches. Compare with the 1569 version.
From adlers-rariaetentruhe on eBay
1598 Girolamo Ruscelli: "TAVOLA NVOVA DI PRVSSIA ET DI LIVONIA," Venice, 10 x 7
inches, from his "Geographia," in two versions, both the third state of his map,
identifiable by the inclusion of a sailing ship. Compare with the 1561, 1562, 1564 and
1598 Giovanni Botero:
"LIVONIA." Sheet 15,5 x 21
cm / 6 x 8 inches. From smardic
|The Library of Congress, via
|Peter Bierl Buch- &
Germany, via www.zvab.com
|Beach Antique Maps and Prints: cesgia on eBay
|Girolamo Ruscelli (alchemist/cartographer/translator) - Giuseppe Rosaccio (cosmographer/
revising cartographer/editor): "POLONIA ET HVNGARIA NVOVA TAVOLA," Venice, 19 x 24
cm /10 x 7 inches, from the Italian translation of Ptolemy's Geographia": "La Geographia
di Caludio Tolomeo...". Ruscelli's 1561 atlas was an expanded version of Gastaldi's 1548
atlas. Ruscelli and Gastaldi's maps were engraved on copper, a turning point in the history
of cartography. From that point on, the majority of cartographic works used this medium.
Harder than wood, it gave the engraver the ability to render more detail. The 1st edition
was in Latin, all later editions were translated into Italian.
|1599 Fourth Ed.
|Post 1599 Sixth Ed.
1596 Johannes Busse-
printer) - Matthias Quad
Descriptio..," Cologne, 7
x 10 inches. From
1596 Giovanni Botero:
his "Theatrvm Principvm
Orbis Vniversi..," with
north on the right. From
the Univ. of Tartu, Estonia:
|Harvard Map Library: