Maps Ethnographic: 1500 years of categorization (by mapmakers from
roughly 1840 on) of the peoples in the historic Lithuanian area by ethnicity, language
and/or religion -- mostly to their disadvantage, and created primarily to advance a
particular group's political aims and claims.
After the last partition of Poland-Lithuania in 1795, according to Steve Seegel, in "Mapping Europe's Borderlands" (Univ. of Chicago
Press, 2012), it was the explicit policy of Catherine of Russia to eliminate any trace of the Commonwealth from history: Poles,
Lithuanians, Latvians,Estonians, Belarusians, and Ukrainians all became mere tribes that benefited by Russian acquisition -- or even by
returning to Russian rule. By the middle and late 19th century, patriotic Poles began erasing the name "Lithuania" from historic maps of
the area, referring to it only as "Poland,' and to Lithuanians as merely one of many tribes within Poland, sometimes with no recognition
that they weren't Slavs. Meanwhile, Russian mapmakers characterized Belarusians as "White" Russians, and Ukrainians as "Little"
Russians. Nationalistic Lithuanians picked up the drumbeatin the early 19oo's, and some, even today refer to Belarusians as Lithuanians
who have merely forgotten that they are really Lithuanian. And Belarusians? On some contemporary map sites they consider
themselves the true inheritors of the Commonwealth, and claim that the Grand Duchy was, in fact, a Belarusian state. All of which had --
and have -- consequences for how post World War I countries were delimited, and for contemporary politics, most obviously in Ukraine.
Maps by date depicted, not date created
701 - 900 DETAIL
from"Slavic Peoples, VIII -
IXc," from a 1923 historical
atlas using Polish
401 - 500: "Baltu gentys
V a." (Baltic tribes in the
5th cent.) after Marija
Gimbutas. A Lithuanian
1101 - 1251: "BALTAI XII a.
II PUSEJE-XIII a. PRADZIO-
JE" (Balts, from the 12th
cent. to the beginning of the
2nd half of the 13th). A Lith-
uanian view of migration
paths going back to the 9th
century. From www.karty.by
1193: Pre-Baltic Crusade "Latvian
Tribes." From www.latviahistory.wordpress.com
"1055-1066 Leonard Chodzko: "POLOGNE,"
1836. Chodzko, an avowed Polonophile,
shows "Pologne" as a country with no fixed
boundaries, encompassing, among other
peoples, "Lithuanienn." Note also, his use of
"Neris" river instead of Wilja." From seanny-5
1125 Karl Spruner:"Die Völker und Reiche der SLAVEN
zwischen Elbe und Don bis 1125" (The Peoples and King-
doms of the Slavs between the Elbe and the Don to 1125),
Gotha, 16 x 11 inches / 41 x 28 cm. in two images. From
Justus Perthes' 1846 "Historisch- Geographer Hand
Atlas." "Littuania - Ljetwa" is included as"Slav," as are
other Baltic peoples.
Perhaps the penultimate example of ethnographics leading
to outrageous fantasy comes from contemporary North
Korea. Here is an excerpt from a 2012 interview with Pulitzer-Prize-
winning author Adam Johnson in the Paris Review (http://www.
E2%80%99s-son%E2%80%99/): "When I went to North Korea I discovered
that there’s no irony there at all. To speak on a secondary level of
meaning, on an ironic level, is a dangerous thing. One of the first places
they took me in Pyongyang was the National Museum of Korean
History, and the first exhibit there was an old skull fragment in a
Plexiglas box. They informed me that the skull was 4.5 million years old
and that it was found on the shores of the Taedong river in Pyongyang.
Then they showed us a painting about how humanity had begun in
Pyongyang and a diorama of the diaspora with all the arrows moving
out of North Korea down into South Korea, up into Asia, across into
Europe, and finally into Africa and America. So I asked our docent—
who of course doesn’t have a Ph.D., she was just reciting a speech she’s
not allowed to deviate from—didn’t people originate in Africa in the rift
valley? She said, “No, Pyongyang.” I said, “So is this a skull fragment
from an australopithecine?” She said, “No, Korean.” Then she ended her
lecture by informing me that therefore I was Korean. When I ironically
agreed, my seven North Korean minders all nodded in approval."
33 - 1300 William
Shepherd: "Growth of
Christianity in Europe,"
from his 1926 "Historical
Atlas." Pagan Lithuanians
are surrounded by Christ-
ian Livonians, Prussians
and Russians. From
Antiqua," London, from
Wilkinson's 1801 "Atlas
Sarmatians" appear to
include Poles, Balts,
Ukrainians. From wikimedia
768-814 Spruner-Menke: DETAIL from
"Europe in the time of Charlemagne"), from
their "Hand-Atlas für die Geschichte des
Mittel-alters..." An "Esthland" that covers
future East Prussia, Lithuania, Latvia and
Estonia, with all but the Estonian area
peopled by "Aisti." From www.maproom.org
814 Colbeck: DETAIL from "Europe at the
Death of Charles the Great," from his
1905 "The Public Schools Historical Atlas."
814 William Shepherd: DETAIL from "The
Carolingian and Byzantine Empires and
the Caliphate," from his 1926 "Historical
850-900 Spruner- Menke: ("Slavs North
of the Danube"), from "Hand-Atlas für die
Geschichte des Mittel-alters..." From
900 William Shepherd: DETAIL from "The
Peoples of Europe about 900," from his
1911 "Historical Atlas." From
900-966 Spruner-Menke: "RUSSLAND,"
from "Hand- Atlas für die Geschichte des
Mittel-alters..." From www.maproom.org
962 Spruner-Menke:, DETAIL from
("Europe at the Coronation of Otto I [as the
Holy Roman Empieror]), from "Hand- Atlas
für die Geschichte des Mittel-alters..." From
966-1114 Spruner- Menke: "RUSSLAND."
From "Hand- Atlas für die Geschichte des
Mittel-alters..." From www.maproom.org
992 Poland , by an
who took Niewiadomski's
shaded areas of influence to
be part of Poland. From
800 Eligiusz Niewiadomski: DETAILS from the
1908 and 1920 versions of "Ziemie zajęte przez
plemiona słowiańskie w epoce monarchii Karola
Wielkiego" (Lands settled by Slavic tribes in the epoch
of Charlemagne), from his "Atlas do Dziejów Polski,"
with maps after Joachim Lelewel. 1908's "Litwa"
and "Zmudz," become, in the 1920 version, "Litwini"
and "Zmudzini," while 1908's Baltic "Sudawi" and
"Prusacy" tribes are eliminated, replaced by
"Prusowie." Slavic tribes' area increases south and
west, at a time when Poland's (and the Baltic states')
borders were being debated. From www.mapwig.org
992 (Death of Mieszko the Ist, considered the creator of the Polish state) Eligiusz
Niewiadomski : "Polska za Mieczysława I-ego r. 992." (Poland at the time of Mieszko
the Ist, in the year 992) on the left from his 1908 "Atlas do Dziejów Polski," with
maps after Joachim Lelewel, and, on the right, the 1920 version of the same
map. Notice how "Poland" has grown to the north and south, with new areas of
Polish influence. The later map was prepared, as was his year 800 map published
1920, at a time when Poland's (and the Baltic states') boundaries were a matter of
debate. From www.mapywig.org
992 Józef Michał Bazewicz: "Polska oraz
narody i plemiona słowiańskie za
Mieczysława Igo (koniec X wieku)" (Poland
and Slavic nations and tribes at the time of
Mieszko the 1st (the end of the 10th
Century), from his 1918 "Atlas historyczny
Polski, wydanie II." Bazewicz goes further
than Niewiadom- ski would go two years
later, and doubles the size of "Poland," now
incorporating Galicia. Perhaps to
compensate, he shows the area of the
Baltic tribes slightly increasing, and
expanding eastward. From www.mapywig.org
1000 William Shepherd:
DETAIL from "Europe and
the Byzantine Empire,"
from his 1926 "Historical
Atlas." Area ascribed to
Lithuanian tribes signifi-
cantly reduced; Poland's
1190 Spruner- Menke: DETAIL from
"EUROPA zur zeit des Dritten Kreuzzuges"
("Europe at the time of the Third Crusade")
From "Hand-Atlas für die Geschichte des
Mittel-alters ..." From www.maproom.org
1910 Smithsonian Annual
Report: "Map of the Slav
People," from "Geographical
and Statistical View of the
Peoples," by Lubor Niederle,
Bohemian Univ., Prague.
Accepts Russia's charac-
terization of Belarusians as
"White Russians," and
Ukrainians as "Small
Russians." Does not support
post WWI assignment of
Poland's eastern boundaries
based on ethnicity. From
arnelpaper on eBay
1912 Samuel Orgelbrand: "MAPA ETNO-
GRAFICZNOSTA TYSTYCZNA," showing
percentage of ethnic Poles in the Polish-
Lithuanian area. From the initiator/
organizer/publisher of the "Encyklopedia
Powszechna" (Universal Encyclopedia), or
"Orgelbrand's Encyclopedia," the first
modern Polish encyclopedia. Beginning in
1858 he assembled a group of "leading
Polish scientists and writers" to produce the
encyklopedia, a 10-year, 28-volume project.
c1916 Eugeniusz Romer:
(900KB), Vienna, at 1:5
000 000, most likely
from his "Geograficszno-
statystyczny atlas Polski."
1918 Vladas Daumantas (Dzimidavičius):
"LIETUVOS ŽEMĖLAPIS," Kaunas, 16.5 x
14.5 inches, published by Lietuvos
valstybės spaustuves litografija. A map
with hoped-for boundaries. From www.
1918 (Anon.) "The Political Subdivision of
the Polish Territory Before the War, and
its Linguistic Areas." See the right lower
margin, in script: "Washington, October
8th, 1918." From the President Woodrow
Wilson papers. Using boundaries of the
pre-partitioned Polish- Lithuanian Com-
monwealth to represent "Poland,"as well
as early 20th century Russian guberniya
boundaries, the map displays percentage
of "Poles," Ruthenians," White Ruthenians,"
and "Lithunians" [sic]. From www.mapywig.org
|1919 Rudolph Mayer: "Nr. 179
(11. Nummer 1918)
platzkarte, Zum Frienschluß mit
Rußland" (Weekly War Venue
Map for the Peace Process with
Russia), Munich. The map has
boundaries for: a. Die nach
Artikel III des Friedensvertrages
(the line according to article III of
the peace agreement) b. von
Rußland Abgetretene gebiete
(areas assigned from Russia) and
c. als selbständig anerkannte
Gebiete (self-recognized areas),
which includes the area of the
future Baltic states, Congress
Poland, and Ukraine. From
c1200 Baltic tribes.
1200 "LIETUVIU GIMINES SENOVEJE."
(Ancient lands of Lithuania)
Ona Maksimaitienė: "Baltai XIII
a. Pradžioje" (Baltic peoples at the
beginning of the 13th century),
from her "Lietuvos Istorinės
Geografijos Bruožai." (AK)
13th Cent. Prussian Clans. From wikipedia
Late 13th cent. Dr. Max Toeppen:
"Prussia in Pagan Times," showing Baltic
tribes, published 1858.
860 - 1139 Maria Regina Korzeniowska:
"POLSKA nabytki od roku 860 - 1333"
(Poland acquisitions in...), from her 1831
"Atlas historyczny, genealogiczny, chrono-
logiczny i geograficzny Polski." Since the
"Polish state" began no earlier than 962,
there was no "Poland" to acquire territory
for the first 102 years of Korzeniowska's
map. From http://rcin.org.pl/dlibra
1139 - 1333 Maria Regina Korzeniowska:
"POLSKA strati od roku 1139 - 1333"
(Poland's losses in the years...), from her
1831 "Atlas historyczny, genealogiczny,
chronologiczny i geograficzny Polski." From
1025 Eligiusz Niewiadomski: "Polska za Bolesława Chrobrego r. 1025" (Poland at the
time of Bolesław the Brave, year 1025), in versions from the 1908 (left) and second,
1920 (right), editions of "Atlas do Dziejów Polski zawierający," with maps after
Joachim Lelewel. Changes from 1908 to 1920: 1. "Litwa" -- implying a country,
became "Litwini," a tribe; 2. a river identified both by its Lithuanian name,
"Neris," and its Polish name, "Vilja," loses the Lithuanian name. In both maps, the
Lithuanian river Nemunas goes only by its Belarusian/Polish name: "Nieman."
1025 J.M. Bazewicz: "Polska za
Bolesława Chrobrego Rok 1025"
(Poland in the time of Bolesław
the Brave, 1025), from his 1918
"Atlas historyczny Polski,
wydanie II." Note "Wilia"" and
"Litwini." From www.mapywig.org
1876 "KARTE des littauischen Spracht-
gebiets" (showing where Lithuanian was
spoken). From Dr. Friedrich Kurchat's
"Grammatik der littauschen Sprache,"
1279 Eligiusz Niewiadomski: "Polska w podziałach r.
1279. - Bolesław Wstydliwy książę krakowski. -
Litwa epoki Wojsiełka" (Poland in the time of divisions
- Bolesław Wstydliwy prince of Kraków - Lithuania in
the epoch of Vaišelga/Vaišvilkas), in versions from
the 1908 (left) and second, 1920 (right), editions of
"Atlas do Dziejów Polski zawierający." Maps after
Joachim Lelewel. In both maps, the area ascribed to
Lithuania(ns) is denoted as "Dzielnice wielkopolskie"
(Districts of Greater Poland). Changes from 1908 to
1920: "Wilno" is absent from the "Litwa" area in the
1908 version, only to appear in the 1920 version.
Nichoas Sanson: "Germano-sarmatia; Kartenmaterial; in qua populi maiores Venedi, et Æstiæi; Peucini, et
Bastarnæ in minores populos divisi ad hodiernam locorum..." published 1655 by Pierre Mariette in Paris, 15.2 x
21.9 inches / 38.7 x 55.5 cm, in four versions engraved by J.Somer.
1333 Maria Regina Korzeniowska: "Polska,
jednoczenie od roku 1333 - 1586" (Poland,
unification from the years...), from her
1831 "Atlas historyczny, genealogiczny,
chronologiczny i geograficzny Polski."
"Litwa" and Zmujdz" are just two of many
areas within "Poland." From
1333 Eligiusz Niewiadomski: "Polska za Władysława Łokietka r. 1333. Dzierżawy
litewskie Gedymina" (Poland at the time of Władysław the Elbow-high - Lithuanian
hereditary lands of Gediminas), from the 1908 (left) and 1920 (right) editions of his
"Atlas do Dziejów Polski zawierający..." (Atlas of Polish history...). In the 1908
version, Kiev (Kijow) is clearly part of Lithuania; in the 1920 version, Lithuania's
southeastern borders are left blank, with Kiev not part of the Grand Duchy. The
reality: Although ruled by a Lithuanian prince in 1333, Kiev had to pay tribute to
the Golden Horde. Only after the Battle of Blue Waters in 1362, were Kiev and
surrounding areas incorporated into the Grand Duchy by Grand Duke Algirdas.
Both versions allow Lithuania specific territory. From www.mapywig.org
1333 Józef Michał Bazewicz:
"Polska za Wład. Łokietka Rok
1333," from his 1918 "Atlas
historyczny Polski, wydanie II."
Of the 3 mapmakers of 1333, he
is the only one to assign to Lith-
uania the name "Wielkie Księstwo
Litewskie," but fails to show its
eastern boundaries. From www.
Charles Francois Delamarche:
"Germano- Sarmatia; Kartenmaterial; ex
mente Ptolomæi et N. Sanson descripta, nec
non im majores minores que populos
distincta..." (German0-Sarmatia; Map
inspired by descriptions from Ptolemy and N.
Sanson, not ignoring smaller tribes which are
a distinct people), published 1790 in Paris.
From the Universität Bern, Switzerland via the
Pierre Mortier, after
matia in qua Populi
maiores Venedi et Aetiaei
Peucini et Bastarnae in
minores Populos divisi ad
Amsterdam, 22 x 16
inches, published c1710.
1837 Constant Desjardins: "Ethnographische Karte von
Europa, oder Darstellung der Haupt-vertheilung der
europaischer Volker nach ihren Sprachen und Religions-
Verschied- enheiten" (Ethnographic map of Europe, or
representation of the primary distribution of European Peoples
according to their languages and religious differences), Wien
(Vienna), 62 x 50 cm, from "Physisch- statistisch und
politischer Atlas von Europa..." From the explanatory text,
displayed as one of two DETAIL images: "IV. SLAVISCHE
FAMILIE...7) Lithauer zwischen Niemen and Dnieper etc. 8)
Letten in Kurland und Liefland, so wie in einem Theile von
Ost-Preussen. (...as in a part of East Prussia)!..V. DIE
FINNISCHE...FAMILIE...B 2) Esthen im Gouvernment
Esthland mit den Liven in Liefland." From www.davidrumsey.com
1837 Two maps by Jan Marcin Bansemer and Piotr Falkenhagen-Zaleski: on the left,
"POLAND and the Neighboring Countries according to the Languages of the Inhabitants;" on
the right, "POLAND and the Neighboring Countries according to the Religion of the
Majority." Both are from the James Wyld London-published "Atlas Containing Ten Maps of
Poland Exhibiting the Political Changes That Country Has Experienced During the Last
Sixty Years, From 1772 to the Present Time...Compiled from the Works of Malte-Brun,
Stanislas Plater, Lelewel, Swienicki, Ruhiere, Ferrand, Balbi, Schnitzler, Hassel, L. Chodzko
and Other Eminent Writers." Note, on the "religions" map: "Polish Liefland" is "Roman
Catholic," as is today's Belarus almost to Minsk; on the "languages" map: "Lithuanian" is
shown as the majority language as far east as "Smorgonie," and as far south as Lida and
Grodno. From www.eurotopo.org
1929 Inst. Kartograficzny Warszawa: on the left: "Mapa rozsiedlenia ludności Litewskiej na
terenie Republiki Litewskiej" (Map of distribution of Lithuanian population in the area of the
Republic of Lithuania) a map showing percentage of Lithuanians in Lithuania); on the right:
"Mapa rozsiedlenia ludności polskiej na terenie Republiki Litewskiej i na obszarach północnych
Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej nazwa współczesna" (Map of distribution of Polish population in the area
of the Republic of Lithuania and in northern areas of the Republic of Poland), Warszawa, at 1:750
000. I looked at the statistics on both maps for my ancestral town: Žiežmariai ("Žyžmory" on
the map). Poles are said to comprise 10% - 20% of the population; Lithuanians 50% - 75%. So,
according to these Polish-produced maps, Lithuanians and Poles supposedly accounted for
60% - 95% of the population. Reality check: the 1923 Lithuanian census -- the only census in
Inter-war Lithuania -- counted 2,198 residents, of whom 1,205 (55%) were Jews: a not
uncommon percentage for towns in those days. Ethnicity was determined by primary
language spoken -- following the precedent of the 1897 Russian census. The Lithuanian
census determined that the population was 84% Lithuanian-speakers, 7.6% Yiddish-speakers,
3.2% Polish-speakers, 2.5% Russian/ Belarussian-speakers, and 0.7% Latvian-speakers. The
Polish Election Committee disputed those findings, saying Poles comprised 10% of the
population and Lithuanians 76.4%. The basis for their claim was the 202,000 votes
(representing about 9.5%-10% of population) cast for Polish political candidates in the 1923
Lithuanian elections. All-in-all, pretty weak justification on both sides for territorial
boundary and political decisions made on the basis of "ethnicity." First map from www.mapywig.org
1930 "Poland and the Baltic" postcard
map, which appears to have been based on
the ethnographic map to the left.
1841 Gottfried Hensel: "Europa poly
glotta: Ling- uarum genealogiam exhib-
ens, una cum literis, scriben- diq[ue]
modis, omnium gen- tium,”
Nuremberg, 16 x 21 cm., from his
"Synopsis vniversae philologiae." The
earliest linguistic map of Europe. From
1846 Gustaf Kombst.
“Ethnographic Map of
46.9 × 56.8 cm., from
Alexander Keith Johnston’
s The National Atlas of
and Political Geography."
1772 (Anon.): "Territoire
politique et ethno- graphique
de la Pologne (1772)," from
"Atlas problémes territoriaux
Pologne" (Atlas of the territorial
problems of Poland), Lviv,
Warsaw, 1921. No mention,
anywhere, of Lithuania. From
Heinrich Berghaus: 1847: "Übersicht von Europa; mit
ethnograph." 1849: "Ethnograph- ische Karte von
Europa, Auf F.v. Stulpnagel's geogr." Both published by
Justus Perthes, Gotha, from editions of his
"Physikalischer Atlas oder Sammlung von Karten, auf
denen die hauptsachlichsten Erscheinungen der
anorganischen und organischen Natur nach ihrer
geographischen Verbreitung und Vertheilung bildlich
dargestellt sind..." A.K. Johnston's "Physical Atlas" of
1848 was based on the 1847 edition. In the 1847
version, we see only "Letten." In the 1849 versions, we
see both "Letten" and "Littauer." From
1856 Louis Dussieux: "Carte Ethnograph-
ique de L'Europe," Paris, 31 x 40 cm, dated
1848, but published in his 1856 "Atlas
General De Geographie Physique, Politique
Et Historique." See "Lithuaniens" under
"Race Lettone." From www.davidrumsey.com
1861 James Cowles Pritchard: "Ethno-
graphic Map of Europe in the Earliest
Times, Illustrative of Dr. Pritchard's
Natural History of Man and His
Researches into the Physical History of
Mankind," London, 49 x 62 cm. From
1868 Casimir Delamarre:
"Carte linguistique, ethno-
graphique, et politique
actuelle de l'Europe orientale,
Russie, Autriche, Turquie," Paris,
47 x 30 cm. Note the area of
"Langue Lithuanienne" and its
reach north, and east past
"Wilna." From http://www.lib.
c1900 Paul R. Magocsi,
Paul R., with Geoffrey J.
design): "Poland in the
20th Century: Major
concentrations of Poles,
ca 1900," from their
1993 "Historical Atlas
of East CentralEurope."
Note the paucity of Poles
in what would become
after WWI. From http://
c500 "Languages in
Europe." Compare with
the c850 map below. From
c850 "Languages in Europe." Combines
Baltic with Illyrian, which was separated
from Baltic in the C500 map above. "Baltic-
Illyrian" is in future Albania and future
Lithuania-Latvia, and pockets in future
Belarus and Russia, reflecting the "Pan-
Illyrian" theory of Hans Krahe, who pro-
posed an "Illyrian" tongue predating Indo-
European. From www. info-poland.buffalo.edu
1872 Heinrich Kiepert (cartographer):
"Völker und Sprachen-Karte von
Deutschland und den Nachbarländern"
(Peoples and Languages in Germany and
Neighboring Lands) Berlin, 42 x 54 cm, at 1:
3 000 000, published by Dietrich Reimer.
Also DETAIL images of the legend and for the
corner of the map showing East Prussia,
future Lithuania and Poland. Note that
"Littauer" predominate in future (post-WWII-
boundary Lithuania except south and west of
"Merecz" (Merkinė) and east of "Wilna." From
the University of Chicago map collection
1881 Richard Andree: "Die verbreitung
der Juden in Mitteleuropa" (The distribu-
tion of the Jews in Central Europe), color-
coded by percentage ranges, showing
"Estland" at less than 0 .1%; "Livland" at
0.5 - 1%; "Kurland" at 4 - 9%; "Witebsk,"
"Kowno," "Wilna" and "Minsk" at 9 - 13%;
"Suwalki," "Grodno" and "Mohilev" at 13 -
18%. From wikicommons
1892 F.A. Brockhaus: "ETHNOGRAPHI-
SCHE KARTE VON EUROPA," Leipzig, from
the 14th edition of "Broackhaus' Konversa-
tions-Lexicon," published 1892-95. Letten-
Litauer" have "Ost-Slaven" ("Gross-, Weiss-,
and Klein- Russen" to the east, and
surrounding "Wilna," with pockets of
"Deutscher" in "Memel," "Kowno," "Libau"
and "Mitau" From beromausers
1895 Richard Andree: "ETHNOGRAPHIC
MAP of EUROPE," London, 24 x 37 cm,
from The Times Atlas, published by The
Times. A differently-colored version of the
preceding Brockhaus map.minus the
pockets of Germans in future Lithuania
and Latvia. From www.davidrumsey.com
862 Leonard Chodźko: "SLAVO-POLO NAISE
aux VIII et IV Siecles...Rurik 862..." from
his 1861 "Histoire de la Lithuanie et de la
Ruthénie," maps after Joachim Lelewel.
Chodźko has Balts descended from the
Heruli, a Germanic tribe who, with the
Goths, sacked Rome in 267. From the British
Library, via Wikimedia.
"Baltų Gentys IX - XII a." (Baltic Tribes 801
- 1200). Vilnius. From Pradai"s "Mokyklinis
Lietuvos Istorijos Atlasas." (AK)
1898 "RUSSIE - Races et Religions"
of the European part of the Russian
Empire, Paris, at 1:40 000 000.
From "Histoire Et Géographie -
Atlas Général Vidal-Lablache,"
Librairie Armand Colin. From
1900 "Ethnographic map of Europe,"
London, 24 x 37 cm., at 1:20 000 000,
from "The Times Atlas." This is the English
version of the German Andrees Handatlas,
3rd edition: 1893-1897. "Lithuanians"
occupy an area roughly equivalent to
post- WWI Lithuania, with "White
Russians to the east and south. From
1918 J. Gabrys: "La Carte Ethnographique
de L'Europe," Paris. published by Librairie
Centrale des Nationalites, with
"Lithuaniens" going south of "Gardinas"
(Grodno) and far east of Vilnius. Also,
"Letgalians" get their own area: former
Polish-Lithuanian Livonia. From wikimedia.
1915 (Anon.): "Mapa rozsiedlenia ludności polskiej w
granicach etno- graficznych i na najbliższych kresach"
(Distribution map of the Polish population by its ethno-
graphic boundaries), Warsaw, 83 x 97 cm, at 1:1 000
000. Published by the Polish Union of Progressive s, and
supposedly showing concentrations of "ethnic Poles."
Three years earlier, on Orgelbrand's map, the per-
centage of Poles in a broad area around Vilnius was 6% to
12%, with Vilnius center as high as 30%. In the 1915
map, the percentage leaps to 50% to 100% in the same
areas. There were no censuses in the meantime, only
guesstimates by "Progressive" Poles eager to claim the
Vilnius area as their own. From http://rcin.org.pl/dlibra
1919 Albert H. Bumstead : "Map of the
Races of Europe," published by the Carto-
graphy Department, under the direction
of Edwin and Gilbert Grosvenor, of The
National Geographic Magazine. Under the
heading "Balto-Slavs" we find "Lithuanians
/Letts" (overlapped to the east and south
by "Great-" and "White-Russians ," but not
by "Poles"), as well as "Armenians." From
1861 A. Koreva: "Этнографическая карта,
ВИЛЕНСОЙ ГУБЕРНIИ" (Ethnograph-ic
Map, Vilna guberniya). Slavs (future
Belarusians) are three shades of pink:
"Белорусы" (White Russian -- originally,
those from eastern Muscovy, Polotsk and
Novgorod): pink horizontal lines;,
"Кривичи" (originally, an eastern Slavic
tribe, centered in Polotsk); "Чернорусы"
(Black Russians -- originally, those from
Pskov and western Muscovy). The two
other ethnic groups are Lithuanians, in
yellow, who occupy all the area around
"Vilno," and Tatars, in a few pockets within
the Lithuanian area. From wikimedia
c1916-17 L. Dury: "Mapa rozsiedlenia
ludności polskiej z uwzględnieniem spisów z
1916 roku. Odsetek ludności polskiej w
powiatach" (Map of percent of Polish
nationals, according to the [March] 1916
German occupation census), Warsaw: solid
red = 50% +; horizontal red lines: 31-50%;
cross-hatch: 20-30%; diagonal lines: 5-19%.
Interesting, except the German census did
not include eastern Belarus or Latgale,
where this maps says Poles supposedly
comprise 5-19%. As believable as 25% Poles
in "Kowno" and parts north. From wikimedia
1914 Czesław Jankowski
(Polish poet/critic/ journal-
ist /historian/social activist):
ZNA," Warsaw, with
from 1912, with no inclu-
sion of present-day Lithu-
anian or Belarusian land.
16th Century Zigmas
Zinkevičius: "Area of
Language," from his
kilmė," 2005, p.230.
1923 "Hammond's Racial Map of Europe,"
showing Lithuanians surrounded on the
east and in the Vilnius area by White
Russians, with Poles only south and west of
Suvalkai. From "Source Records of the Great
War," National Alumni, 1923, via wikimedia
1815 "Languages, peoples and political
divisions of Europe, 1815 - 1914." This
maps shows only "White Russians" to the
east and south of Lithuanians, with Poles
only touching south of the Suvalkai
region. From www.buffalo.edu
1942 Jekab Jureviz, Gottfried Müller, Hermann Warren: "Ostland-Atlas: Baltische Randstaaten," Riga, published by Reichskommissar für das Ostland.
One of two reports that make up the "Strukturbericht über das Ostland" (Structural Report on the Ostland), the other being "Ostland in Zahlen" (Ostland in
Numbers). This report was created by the Nazi Reich Commissioner for the Eastern Territories and used in the civil administration of the occupied
Eastern Territories: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarussia and part of Poland. The 52 color maps show the occupied administrative territories, their
climate and vegetation, population demographics, agricultural status, industry, energy and economic features, traffic and roads, foreign trade in
1938, and the history of the area to 1943. Ethnographic and religion maps are shown below. (Others are at the "Maps1940-45" page). From Ball State
University's digital library, at www.bsu.edu
1908-16 "Polacy i Litwini,"
from the "Polski Atlas
Kongresowy" of 1921, showing
percentage of Poles and
Lithuanians in Poland and
1919 "Ligne de démarca-
tion Polono- Lithu anienne"
between Poland and
Lithuania in 1919), along
with areas of majorities of
Poles and Lithuanians,
published 1921 in "Polski
Atlas Kongresowy." From
1921 "Carte Etnographique du Comite
National Polonais" (Ethnographic map by the
Polish National Committee) published 1921
in "Polski Atlas Kongresowy." Shows, among
other things, that eastern Courland,
including the area just south of Daugavpils,
was over 50% Polish. From
1910 "Les Juifs en Pologne
1910," from the 1921
"Polski Atlas Kongresowy,"
showing percentage of Jews
within the boundaries of
the pre-Partition Polish-
1921 "Gęstość Polaków" (Density of Poles)
from "Polski Atlas Kongresowy - Atlas des
Problemes Territoriaux de la Pologne,"
published 1921 in Lwów and Warszawa.A
little from the map to the left from the
same atlas, no? From http://rcin.org.pl/dlibra
1921 Eugeniusz Romer: "Polish territory
with over 50% of Poles according to the
materials and documents of the last years
1914 - 1920," Lwów, from "Geograficzno-
Statystyczny Atlas Polski." Yet another
view, one that shows concentrations not
only unlike those shown on the previous
map, but unlike most others, and yet with
great specificity. From wikimedia
June 1923 Foreign Affairs Magazine:
"Ethography of the Vilna Region,"
showing competing claims and
Univ of berne, Switzerland, via
1929 "Europa Etnographica," from the 3rd
edition of "Atlante internazionale del
Touring club italiano." Depicts, among
other groups, under "Ugro-Finni," "Ciuti"
in "Estoni i Livoni," and, under "Slavo-
Lettoni," "Lituani" and "Lettoni
(Latgaliani)." From www.davidrumsey.com
501 - 550 (Anon.):
"Osteuropa in der
ersten Hälfte des 6
From Univ. at Klagen-
1921 Marian Świechowski: "Le problème Lithuanien," booklet cover, commentary and two maps by a member of Poland's Parliament, and the editor
of the interwar "Glocu Wilna" (Voice of Vilnius) that offer two solutions to the "Lithuania problem": be absorbed by Germany/East Prussia, or by
Poland. From www.mapywig.org
1919 Vladas Daumantas (Dzimidavičius): "Carte
de la Lituanie," Berne, (as well as the map's cover
page), along with five inset maps showing historic
boundaries, and a key and coloring denoting 13
levels of Lithuanian ethnicity! A riposte to the
Polish-produced ethnic maps at Versailles. From
The Wroblewski Library of the Lithuanian Academy of
1917-18 Eugeniusz Romer: "Just think!
There are 30 Million Poles!," postcard
printed in Lausanne by the Polish
National Committee, no doubt prepared
for the deliberations in Versailles on the
post-WWI boundaries of Poland and
Lithuania. Boundaries for the "Ancient
Polish Republic, Dismembered 1772 -
1795 are shown. "Plainly propaganda"
according to Steven Seegel's "Mapping Europe's
1911 V. Verbickas (pro-Russian archaeologist
/engineer/publisher): "Lietuvos žemelapis su
etnografijos siena" (Map of Lithuania with
ethnographic borders), published in St.
Petersburg by the Il'in firm, and in Kaunas
by the company "Lietuvos ūkininko"
(Lithuanian Farmer). From The Wroblewski
Library of the Lithuanian Academy of Sciences:
1856 Alexander Keith Johnston: "Ethno-
graphic map of Europe according to Dr.
Gustaf Kombst..," Edinburgh, 51 x 62 cm.
from the second edition of Johnston's "The
physical atlas of natural phenomena." The
map is little changed from the 1846
version above: "Lettons," but not
"Lithuanians," are a recognized ethnicity.
1919 "Carte de Lituanie " 1920 "Karte von Litauen"
The same map, one in French, one in German, with boundaries of Lithuanian
Ethnographic territory the same in each, and to Lithuania's advantage, but with
the French, earlier, version showing the "Boundary of the new State of Lithuania,"
while the later German-language version has the same boundary labeled "The
Presumptive Boundary of the new State of Lithuania." From The Wroblewski Library of
the Lithuanian Academy of Sciences: elibrary.mab.lt/
9th Century "Carte Ethnographique -
Des Pays Slaves" (Ethnographic Map -
Slavic Countries), Paris, from “La Pologne
et ses frontieres”...translated by E.
Johnstone." From the British Library, via
1303 - 1795 Dr. John P.
graphical and Historical
Territories and Boun-
daries of Whiteruthenia
New York, 1953. Note
from pravapis.org editor:
this is a rare ethnographic
map from the well-known
20th century Belarusan
linguist and ethnography
researcher Dr. Jan Stan-
kievich. From http://www.
1875 Aleksandr Fyodorovich Rittikh / Alexander
Rittich (Александр Фёдорович Риттих):
"Этнографическая карта Европейской России"
(Ethnographic Map of European Russia), St
Petersburg. Based on both language and
"confession" - religion. Also DETAIL images,
including the legend, which includes colors under
Литовская (Lithuaniaт g.) for Литва (Lithuania)
and Латыши (Latvia). From wikimedia
1875 Aleksandr Fyodorovich Rittikh /
Alexander Rittich (Александр Фёдорович
Риттих): "ЭАПАДНЫХЪ ЮЖНЫХЪ
СЛАВЯНЪ" (Western and Southern Slavs). St
Petersurg. Also a DETAIL image of the
legend, data based on both language and
"confession" - religion, which includes colors
under Литовская (Lithuaniaт g.) for Литва
(Lithuania) and Латыши (Latvia). From www.
1919 J. Franckevičius (publisher):
"Žemlapis Žemaičių vyskupijos su
etnografiniu lietuviu plotu" (Map of the
Samogitian Diocese with Lithuanian
ethnographic areas). From The Wroblewski
Library of the Lithuanian Academy of Sciences:
1939 (Anon.): "POLACY," showing areas in
Poland, Lithuania and East Prussia where
Poles comprised more than 50% and less
than 50% of the population. Also two
charts, one showing percentage of popu-
lation of all ethnicities in Poland, and
number of Poles in a number of countries
in the world. From www.karty.by
c1930 J. Rozwadowski: "Mapa języka
litewskiego (Map where Lithuanian is
spoken)," Kraków, on a map showing pre-
WWI guberniyas, distinguishing between
"Zwarty obszar jezyka litewskiego" and
"Mieszany obszar jezyka litewskiego"
(Dense and Mixed Lithuanian Language
areas). From The Wroblewski Library of the
Lithuanian Academy of Sciences: elibrary.mab.lt/
c1935 Julius Iwan Kettler (geographer/ cartographer)-
Carl Flemming (publisher): "Völkerkarte von Nord-
polen und Ostdeutschland," (Ethnic Map of North
Poland and East Germany [and Lithuania]),
Berlin/Glogau, . 24 x 15 cm. Also ten DETAIL images.
From the Digital Library of the University of Wroclaw:
c1858 Winckelmann et fils (publishers):
"Tableaux Ethnographique, " Berlin.
"Lithuaniens" include "Litvines, Samo-
ghitiens, and Lettons," and they comprise
3.9% of the population in "Pologne," 79.4%
in "Courlande," 82.9% in "Kovno," 45.0% in
"Vilna," 0.4% in "Grodno," 19.1% in
"Vitebsk," and 5.5% in "Prusse." From
1906 David Aïtoff (mapmaker): "Carte
Ethnographique de la Russie d' Europe, dressé
par D. Aïtoff : d'après les donnè du premier
recensement de la population de l'Empire
Russe (1897), publiées en Février 1905"
(Peoples and languages of Russia after the last
Russian census: with a legend showing colors.
Subtitle: Ethnographic Map of the European
Russia created by D. Aitoff: according to the
first census of the population of the Russian
Empire , published in February 1905),
Paris, published by Librairie Armand Colin.
Edward Wells: "A new map
of Sarmatia, Europaea,
Pannonia and Dacia,"
London, from the 1700
edition of "A New Sett of
Maps Both of Antient and
Present Geography." From
Philippe Briet: "Sarma-
tiæ Evropæ ae deline-
atio." Paris, 5.9 x 7.5
inches, published 1649
in his "Geographique
Theatre de l'Europe."
"Sarmatians": a nomadic people from southern Russia between the Urals and the Don who eventually migrated to the Ukraine and Moldova, and who were assimilated into Slavic tribes by the
fourth century AD. The presence of "Germano-Sarmatia" in the historic Lithuanian area is a romantic fantasy of the 17th - 19th centuries which continues to the present day.
Guillaume Sanson: "Europa
Vetus" (Old Europe), Paris,
from the 1697 "Cartes et
Tables de la Geographie
Ancienne et Nouvelle..."
(Maps and Tables of Geo-
graphy Ancient and Modern
...). "Germano- Sarmatia's"
boundaries are similar
those of the Polish-Lith-
uanian Commonwealth the
year of publication.
John Thomas (publisher):
"Sarmatia," (1.2 MB),
London, from "Thomas's
library atlas, embodying
a complete set of maps,
illustrative of modern &
published 1835. From
Gerard Mercator -
Claudius Ptolemy: "Tab.
VIII. Europae, in qua
Sarmatia...." From the
last, c1730, edition of
Mercator's version of
evident from the plate
cracks at top and center.
2008-11 Dovid Katz (linguist/creator) - Giedrė Beconytė (cartographer): "The Territory of Jewish Lithuania,"
depicting cultural and dialect borders; "homentashen," and "ear," which depict varying pronounciations of
those words in Jewish Lithuania. All maps are from his online "LITVISH, An Atlas of Northeastern Yiddish."
1843 Constant Desjardins (cartographer):
"Carte ethnographique ou tableau des
peuples de l'Europe classés d'après leurs
langues" (Ethnographic Map of Chart listing
the Peoples of Europe According to their
languages), along with a detail image of
the historic Lithuanian area. From The
National Library of France: gallica.bnf.fr
801 - 1000 Krzysztoflew:
"West Slavs: 9th/10th
"Polans" as a "main tribe,"
centered around Poznań.
1897 Vytautas Birstonas:
"1897 Lithuania Census,"
which he created in 2016
using information on this
Maps" page. From Vytautas
|"No 85 -- Pays des
|"No 87 -- Limites des
Catholiques et des
Jacques Élisée Reclus (geographer) - C.E. Perron
(mapmaker) - Hachette (publisher): two
woodcut miniatures from the 19-volume "La
Nouvelle Géographie universelle..," published
1875-94. No. 85, 11 x 11 cm, depicts the range
of "Letto-Lithuaniens" in the 10th century,
"Letto-Lithuaniens" in the 19th century, and
Germans, Poles and Russians at the time the
map was published. No. 87, 11.5 x 10 cm,
depicts range of Greek/Orthodox Catholics,
Roman Catholics, Protestants and
"Maltometanie"(?). From adriaticprints on eBay
1827 Stanisław Plater: two "Mappa Polski," from "Atlas statystyczny Polski i
krajow okolicznych," Poznań -- one "Język," or based on language; , one on
Christian religions: Religie chrześcijańskie. From Biblioteka Uniwersytecka we
1842 Pavel Josef Šafařík: "Slovanský
Zeměvid, 1842" (Slavic-settled Territories),
Prague, from a 1955 facsimilie edition of
Šafařík's 1842 "Slovanský Narodopis"
(Slavic ethnography). See the area ascribed
to "Slované" (Slavs) vs. "Litvané" (Lithu-
anians), and "Lotyši" (Latvians). From www.
historicalbalticmaps.com from Study Platform on
Interlocking Nationalisms: http://www.spinnet.eu
1873 (dated) Александр
Федорович Риттих (Alexander
Rittikh): "Этнографическая карта
(Ethnographic map of the Baltic
region), St. Petersburg, depicting
на́родно̄ст (nationality) from
Narva to Memel. From the digital
archive of the National Library of Estonia:
1878 C. Perron (engraver) - Jacques
Élisée Reclus (geographer): "Lands of
the Lithuanians...according to
Dragomanov," from Reclus' "The
Universal Geography." From
its*now*vintage on eBay
1914 Włodzimierz Wakar
rozsiedlenia ludności pol-
skiej" (Statistical map of
Warsaw, showing areas
where Poles predominate.
1864 Pompei Nikolaevich Batiushkov (artilleryman/mapmaker/government official in Kovno guberniya) - Aleksandr Fyodorivich Rittikh
(mapmaker/lieutenant colonel/ethnographer): "Атлас народонаселения Западно-русского края..." (Atlas of Confessions [Religions]
Compiled by the Ministry of Internal Affairs in the Head Office of the Organization of Orthodox Churches in the Western Provinces), 2nd
Edition, St. Petersburg, prepared 1862-64, and based on a combination of data compiled by the Russian Orthodox church and German
statisticians like Petr Keppen. The atlas has an overall map of western Russia, and nine individual guberniya maps of (four are shown
here). Each guberniya map has two parts: a color image of the area corresponding to the percentage of each confession, and details on
the number of inhabitants of both sexes in each district. The seven listed confessions (both Batiushkov and Rittikh contributed): Roman
Catholic, Greek-Uniate, Orthodox, Old Believers, Protestants, Jews and Muslims. The ten categories for "tribes" (Rittikh's primary focus
in the atlas): Zhmud (Samogitians), Lithuanians, Kurpaks, Mazurians, Poles, Great Russians, White Russians, Germans, Jews and
Tatars. Statistical tables were in French, German Latin, Russian and Polish. The impetus for creation of the atlas was insurrection in
Poland and historic Lithuania against forced conscription into the Russian military. The "January Uprising" (Pol.: powstanie
styczniowe; Lith.: 1863 m. sukilimas, Bel.: Паўстанне 1863-1864 гадоў) occurred in the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth,
beginning in Poland on 22 January 1863, and in the former Grand Duchy beginning February 1, where it was led by Zygmunt
Sierakowski, Antanas Mackevičius and Konstanty Kalinowski.The last insurgents were captured in 1864. The atlas was used to identify
non-Russian peoples and religions for Russification, and as source material for the 1897 All-Russian census. Source for commentary:
"Mapping Europe's Borderlands," Steven Seegel, 2012 and wikipeda. Source for the maps: www.easteurotopo.org, which, in turn credited the University of
California at Berkeley's Earth Sciences Library as the ultimate source for the maps.
|Distribution by cult
of the nine western
provinces of Russia
1879 Jacques Élisée Reclus (geographer/
anarchist/nudist): "Peuples de l’Europe
Orientale," Paris, from “Nouvelle
Géographie Universelle. La Terre et les
Hommes,” published 1875-94 by
Hachette. Note that under the category
"Aryens divers" are "Lithuaniens," "Letts,"
"Tsiganes" (Roma) and "Grecs." From www.
1906 Howard. B. Grose: "Races of
Immigrants, Fiscal Year 1905," from
"Aliens or Americans?" Dayton, Ohio,
Home Missionary Society of the United
Brethern Church. Lithuanians Letts and
"Hebrews" are considered Slavs. From
"Persuasive Maps: PJ Mode Collection," at
1920 de Schnakenburg:
"Lithuanie historique et
From the Bibliotheque nationale
de France: www.gallica.bnf.fr
1916 Royal Geographic Society, under the
direction of the Geographic Section of the
General Staff, printed in 1915 by the
Ordnance Survey: "Ethnographical Map of
Central and South Eastern Europe," London.
In preparation for the peace conference that
was expected to follow World War I, the
British Foreign Office established a special
section responsible for preparing back-
ground information for use by British
delegates to the conference. This map is
from "Maps of Poland, Number 49," which
contains eight foldout maps. See ethnic
boundaries for area of the former Grand
Duchy of Lithuania. From Library of Congress
via World Digital Library:
c1916 (Anon.): "Carte ethnographique de la
Russie occidentale et des pays limitrophes en
Pologne et en Galicie," Paris (?), published by
J. Bermeiseffimp. Three detail images: the
table of populations, the area of the former
Grand Duchy, and the legend. The table
appears to be based on the 1897 Russian
census, but excludes Suvalkų g., where
Lithuanian-speakers comprised 52% of all.
The mapmaker mistakenly colored that
gubernia as Polish-speaking, but colored the
Vilnius area as Lithuanian-speaking. From the
National Library of France: http://gallica.bnf.fr